Should excessive and problematic engagement in nonsubstance use behaviors be mental disorders? The fifth edition of the (DSM-5) repositioned gambling disorder in the substance use disorders section and introduced Internet gaming disorder in the research appendix; the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is also considering it. This article outlines pros and cons of considering behavioral addictions as mental disorders and also reviews the DSM-5 decision-making processes. It focuses on three conditions: gambling disorder, Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and Internet addiction (IA). We detail assessment methods and prevalence rates for these conditions and outline psychiatric comorbidities, demographic and biological risk factors, and promising treatment approaches. We also briefly discuss other putative behavioral addictions: eating/food, sex, exercise, shopping, and tanning “addictions.” Overall, data are inconclusive, and consistent terminology and methodology are needed to define and evaluate these conditions more fully prior to considering them mental disorders.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Agrawal A, Verweij KJ, Gillespie NA, Heath AC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN. et al. 2012. The genetics of addiction—a translational perspective. Transl. Psychiatry 2:e140 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmadi K. 2014. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study. Acta Med. Iran 52:6467–72 [Google Scholar]
  3. Andreassen CS, Pallesen S. 2014. Social network site addiction—an overview. Curr. Pharm. Des. 20:254053–61 [Google Scholar]
  4. Andreassen CS, Torsheim T, Brunborg GS, Pallesen S. 2012. Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale. Psychol. Rep. 110:2501–17 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bakken IJ, Wenzel HG, Götestam KG, Johansson A, Oren A. 2009. Internet addiction among Norwegian adults: a stratified probability sample study. Scand. J. Psychol. 50:2121–27 [Google Scholar]
  6. Balodis IM, Kober H, Worhunsky PD, Stevens MC, Pearlson GD, Potenza MN. 2012. Diminished frontostriatal activity during processing of monetary rewards and losses in pathological gambling. Biol. Psychiatry 71:8749–57 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bonke J, Borregaard K. 2006. The prevalence and heterogeneity of at-risk and pathological gamblers: the Danish case Work. Pap. 15:2006, Res. Dep., Soc. Policy Welfare Serv. https://pure.sfi.dk/ws/files/236757/2006_15_WP.pdf
  8. Cao H, Sun Y, Wan Y, Hao J, Tao F. 2011. Problematic Internet use in Chinese adolescents and its relation to psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction. BMC Public Health 11:802 [Google Scholar]
  9. Carli V, Durkee T, Wasserman D, Hadlaczky G, Despalins R. et al. 2013. The association between pathological internet use and comorbid psychopathology: a systematic review. Psychopathology 46:11–13 [Google Scholar]
  10. Casey LM, Oei TP, Raylu N, Horrigan K, Day J. et al. 2017. Internet-based delivery of cognitive behaviour therapy compared to monitoring, feedback and support for problem gambling: a randomised controlled trial. J. Gambl. Stud. 33:3993–1010 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chambless DL, Hollon SD. 1998. Defining empirically supported therapies. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 66:17–18 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chan PA, Rabinowitz T. 2006. A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents. Ann. Gen. Psychiatry 5:16 [Google Scholar]
  13. Choo H, Gentile DA, Sim T, Li D, Khoo A, Liau AK. 2010. Pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 39:11822–29 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cunningham JA, Hodgins DC, Toneatto T, Murphy M. 2012. A randomized controlled trial of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers. PLOS ONE 7:2e31586 [Google Scholar]
  15. Currie SR, Hodgins DC, Casey DM. 2013. Validity of the Problem Gambling Severity Index interpretive categories. J. Gambl. Stud. 29:2311–27 [Google Scholar]
  16. Desai RA, Krishnan-Sarin S, Cavallo D, Potenza MN. 2010. Video-gaming among high school students: health correlates, gender differences, and problematic gaming. Pediatrics 126:6e1414–24 [Google Scholar]
  17. Diskin KM, Hodgins DC. 2009. A randomized controlled trial of a single session motivational intervention for concerned gamblers. Behav. Res. Ther. 47:5382–88 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dong G, DeVito E, Huang J, Du X. 2012.a Diffusion tensor imaging reveals thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in internet gaming addicts. J. Psychiatr. Res. 46:91212–16 [Google Scholar]
  19. Dong G, Huang J, Du X. 2012.b Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts. Behav. Brain Funct. 8:41 [Google Scholar]
  20. Durkee T, Kaess M, Carli V, Parzer P, Wasserman C. et al. 2012. Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: demographic and social factors. Addiction 107:122210–22 [Google Scholar]
  21. Ferris J, Wynne H. 2001. The Canadian Problem Gambling Index Ottawa, ON: Can. Cent. Subst. Abuse
  22. Festl R, Scharkow M, Quandt T. 2013. Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults. Addiction 108:3592–99 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gentile D. 2009. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study. Psychol. Sci. 20:5594–602 [Google Scholar]
  24. Gentile DA, Choo H, Liau A, Sim T, Li D. et al. 2011. Pathological video game use among youths: a two-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics 127:2e319–29 [Google Scholar]
  25. Gerstein D, Murphy S, Toce M, Hoffmann J, Palmer A. et al. 1999. Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: A Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission Chicago: Natl. Op. Res. Cent
  26. Grant JE, Kim SW, Potenza MN, Blanco C, Ibanez A. et al. 2003. Paroxetine treatment of pathological gambling: a multi-centre randomized controlled trial. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 18:4243–49 [Google Scholar]
  27. Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Potenza MN, Hollander E, Kim SW. 2010. Nalmefene in the treatment of pathological gambling: multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br. J. Psychiatry 197:4330–31 [Google Scholar]
  28. Grant JE, Potenza MN, Hollander E, Cunningham-Williams R, Nurminen T. et al. 2006. Multicenter investigation of the opioid antagonist nalmefene in the treatment of pathological gambling. Am. J. Psychiatry 163:2303–12 [Google Scholar]
  29. Griffiths MD, van Rooij AJ, Kardefelt-Winther D, Starcevic V, Király O. et al. 2016. Working towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al. 2014. Addiction 111:1167–75 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ha Y, Hwang WJ. 2014. Gender differences in Internet addiction associated with psychological health indicators among adolescents using a national web-based survey. Int. J. Ment. Health Addict 12:660–69 [Google Scholar]
  31. Han DH, Lee YS, Yang KC, Kim EY, Lyoo IK, Renshaw PF. 2007. Dopamine genes and reward dependence in adolescents with excessive internet video game play. J. Addict. Med. 1:3133–38 [Google Scholar]
  32. Han DH, Renshaw PF. 2012. Bupropion in the treatment of problematic online game play in patients with major depressive disorder. J. Psychopharmacol. 26:5689–96 [Google Scholar]
  33. Hasin DS, O'Brien CP, Auriacombe M, Borges G, Bucholz K. et al. 2013. DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale. Am. J. Psychiatry 170:8834–51 [Google Scholar]
  34. Hodgins DC. 2004. Using the NORC DSM Screen for Gambling Problems as an outcome measure for pathological gambling: psychometric evaluation. Addict. Behav. 29:81685–90 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hodgins DC, Currie SR, Currie G, Fick GH. 2009. Randomized trial of brief motivational treatments for pathological gamblers: More is not necessarily better. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 77:5950–60 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hodgins DC, Currie SR, el-Guebaly N. 2001. Motivational enhancement and self-help treatments for problem gambling. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 69:150–57 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hökby S, Hadlaczky G, Westerlund J, Wasserman D, Balazs J. et al. 2016. Are mental health effects of internet use attributable to the web-based content or perceived consequences of usage? A longitudinal study of European adolescents. JMIR Ment. Health 3:3e31 [Google Scholar]
  38. Johansson A, Götestam KG. 2004. Internet addiction: characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth (12–18 years). Scand. J. Psychol. 45:3223–29 [Google Scholar]
  39. Joutsa J, Saunavaara J, Parkkola R, Niemelä S, Kaasinen V. 2011. Extensive abnormality of brain white matter integrity in pathological gambling. Psychiatry Res 194:3340–46 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kessler RC, Hwang I, LaBrie R, Petukhova M, Sampson NA. et al. 2008. DSM-IV pathological gambling in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychol. Med. 38:91351–60 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kim BS, Chang SM, Park JE, Seong SJ, Won SH, Cho MJ. 2016. Prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidities, and suicidality in a community population with problematic Internet use. Psychiatry Res 244:249–56 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kim SM, Han DH, Lee YS, Renshaw PF. 2012. Combined cognitive behavioral therapy and bupropion for the treatment of problematic on-line game play in adolescents with major depressive disorder. Comput. Hum. Behav. 28:51954–59 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kim PW, Kim SY, Shim M, Im CH, Shon YM. 2013. The influence of an educational course on language expression and treatment of gaming addiction for massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players. Comput. Educ. 63:208–17 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ko CH, Liu GC, Yen JY, Chen CY, Yen CF, Chen CS. 2013. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects. Addict. Biol. 18:3559–69 [Google Scholar]
  45. Ko CH, Wang PW, Liu TL, Yen CF, Chen CS, Yen JY. 2015. Bidirectional associations between family factors and Internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 69:4192–200 [Google Scholar]
  46. Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen SH, Wang PW, Chen CS, Yen CF. 2014. Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 among young adults in Taiwan. J. Psychiatr. Res. 53:103–10 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen CS, Yeh YC, Yen CF. 2009. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 163:10937–43 [Google Scholar]
  48. Ko CH, Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CS, Weng CC, Chen CC. 2008. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 11:5571–76 [Google Scholar]
  49. Ko CH, Yen JY, Yen CF, Lin HC, Yang MJ. 2007. Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: a prospective study. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 10:4545–51 [Google Scholar]
  50. Koo HJ, Han DH, Park SY, Kwon JH. 2017. The structured clinical interview for DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: development and validation for diagnosing IGD in adolescents. Psychiatry Investig. 14:121–29 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kovanen L, Basnet S, Castrén S, Pankakoski M, Saarikoski ST. et al. 2016. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of as-needed Naltrexone in the treatment of pathological gambling. Eur. Addict. Res. 22:270–79 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kwon M, Lee JY, Won WY, Park JW, Min JA. et al. 2013. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLOS ONE 8:2e56936 [Google Scholar]
  53. LaBrie RA, Peller AJ, Laplante DA, Bernhard B, Harper A. et al. 2012. A brief self-help toolkit intervention for gambling problems: a randomized multisite trial. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 82:2278–89 [Google Scholar]
  54. Laconi S, Rodgers RF, Chabrol H. 2014. The measurement of Internet addiction: a critical review of existing scales and their psychometric properties. Comput. Hum. Behav. 41:190–202 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lee YS, Han DH, Yang KC, Daniels MA, Na C. et al. 2008. Depression like characteristics of 5HTTLPR polymorphism and temperament in excessive internet users. J. Affect. Disord. 109:1–2165–69 [Google Scholar]
  56. Li Y, Zhang X, Lu F, Zhang Q, Wang Y. 2014. Internet addiction among elementary and middle school students in China: a nationally representative sample study. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17:2111–16 [Google Scholar]
  57. Limbrick-Oldfield EH, van Holst RJ, Clark L. 2013. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: consistent inconsistencies?. Neuroimage Clin 2:385–93 [Google Scholar]
  58. Lin X, Dong G, Wang Q, Du X. 2015. Abnormal gray matter and white matter volume in “Internet gaming addicts. .” Addict. Behav. 40:137–43 [Google Scholar]
  59. Lin MP, Ko HC, Wu JY. 2011. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 14:12741–46 [Google Scholar]
  60. Lin F, Zhou Y, Du Y, Qin L, Zhao Z. et al. 2012. Abnormal white matter integrity in adolescents with internet addiction disorder: a tract-based spatial statistics study. PLOS ONE 7:1e30253 [Google Scholar]
  61. Lind PA, Zhu G, Montgomery GW, Madden PA, Heath AC. et al. 2013. Genome-wide association study of a quantitative disordered gambling trait. Addict. Biol. 18:3511–22 [Google Scholar]
  62. Liu J, Gao XP, Osunde I, Li X, Zhou SK. et al. 2010. Increased regional homogeneity in internet addiction disorder: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 123:141904–8 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lorains FK, Cowlishaw S, Thomas SA. 2011. Prevalence of comorbid disorders in problem and pathological gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys. Addiction 106:3490–98 [Google Scholar]
  64. Luquiens A, Tanguy ML, Lagadec M, Benyamina A, Aubin HJ, Reynaud M. 2016. The efficacy of three modalities of internet-based psychotherapy for non-treatment-seeking online problem gamblers: a randomized controlled trial. J. Med. Internet Res. 18:2e36 [Google Scholar]
  65. Macur M, Király O, Maraz A, Nagygyörgy K, Demetrovics Z. 2016. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia. Zdr. Varst. 55:3202–11 [Google Scholar]
  66. Mak KK, Lai CM, Watanabe H, Kim DI, Bahar N. et al. 2014. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17:11720–28 [Google Scholar]
  67. Martens MP, Arterberry BJ, Takamatsu SK, Masters J, Dude K. 2015. The efficacy of a personalized feedback-only intervention for at-risk college gamblers. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 83:3494–99 [Google Scholar]
  68. Mihara S, Osaki Y, Nakayama H, Sakuma H, Ikeda M. et al. 2016. Internet use and problematic Internet use among adolescents in Japan: a nationwide representative survey. Addict. Behav. Rep. 4:58–64 [Google Scholar]
  69. Moulton EA, Elman I, Becerra LR, Goldstein RZ, Borsook D. 2014. The cerebellum and addiction: insights gained from neuroimaging research. Addict. Biol. 19:3317–31 [Google Scholar]
  70. Müller KW, Dreier M, Duven E, Giralt S, Beutel ME, Wölfling K. 2017. Adding clinical validity to the statistical power of large-scale epidemiological surveys on internet addiction in adolescence: a combined approach to investigate psychopathology and development-specific personality traits associated with internet addiction. J. Clin. Psychiatry 78:3e244–51 [Google Scholar]
  71. Müller KW, Janikian M, Dreier M, Wölfling K, Beutel ME. et al. 2015. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 24:5565–74 [Google Scholar]
  72. National Council on Problem Gambling 2015. Report of Survey on Participation in Gambling Activities Among Singapore Residents, 2014 Singapore: Min. Soc. Fam. Dev https://www.msf.gov.sg/research-and-data/Research-and-Statistics/Pages/Survey-On-Gambling-Participation-Among-Singapore-Residents-2014.aspx
  73. Neighbors C, Rodriguez LM, Rinker DV, Gonzales RG, Agana M. et al. 2015. Efficacy of personalized normative feedback as a brief intervention for college student gambling: a randomized controlled trial. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 83:3500–11 [Google Scholar]
  74. Oei TP, Raylu N, Casey LM. 2010. Effectiveness of group and individual formats of a combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral treatment program for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial. Behav. Cogn. Psychother. 38:2233–38 [Google Scholar]
  75. Ólason DT, Barudottir SK, Gretarsson SJ. 2005. Prevalence of pathological gambling among adults in Iceland Presented at Conf. Res. Soc. Sci., 6th, Reykjavík, Icel
  76. Pagani LS, Derevensky JL, Japel C. 2009. Predicting gambling behavior in sixth grade from kindergarten impulsivity: a tale of developmental continuity. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 163:3238–43 [Google Scholar]
  77. Pápay O, Urbán R, Griffiths MD, Nagygyörgy K, Farkas J. et al. 2013. Psychometric properties of the problematic online gaming questionnaire short-form and prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national sample of adolescents. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 16:5340–48 [Google Scholar]
  78. Park JH, Lee YS, Sohn JH, Han DH. 2016. Effectiveness of atomoxetine and methylphenidate for problematic online gaming in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 31:6427–32 [Google Scholar]
  79. Petry NM. 2001. Substance abuse, pathological gambling, and impulsiveness. Drug Alcohol Depend. 63:129–38 [Google Scholar]
  80. Petry NM. 2003. A comparison of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers based on preferred gambling activity. Addiction 98:5645–55 [Google Scholar]
  81. Petry NM. 2005. Pathological Gambling: Etiology, Comorbidity and Treatments Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc. Press
  82. Petry NM. 2016. Behavioral Addictions: DSM-5 and Beyond New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  83. Petry NM, Ammerman Y, Bohl J, Doersch A, Gay H. et al. 2006. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pathological gamblers. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 74:3555–67 [Google Scholar]
  84. Petry NM, Blanco C, Auriacombe M, Borges G, Bucholz K. et al. 2014.a An overview of and rationale for changes proposed for pathological gambling in DSM-5. J. Gambl. Stud. 30:2493–502 [Google Scholar]
  85. Petry NM, Blanco C, Stinchfield R, Volberg R. 2013. An empirical evaluation of proposed changes for gambling diagnosis in the DSM-5. Addiction 108:3575–81 [Google Scholar]
  86. Petry NM, Rash CJ, Alessi SM. 2016.a A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions for problem gambling in substance abuse treatment patients. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 84:10874–86 [Google Scholar]
  87. Petry NM, Rehbein F, Gentile DA, Lemmens JS, Rumpf HJ. et al. 2014.b An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach. Addiction 109:91399–406 [Google Scholar]
  88. Petry NM, Rehbein F, Gentile DA, Lemmens JS, Rumpf HJ. et al. 2016.b Griffiths et al.’s comments on the international consensus statement of internet gaming disorder: furthering consensus or hindering progress. ? Addiction 111:1175–78 [Google Scholar]
  89. Petry NM, Rehbein F, Ko CH, O'Brien CP. 2015. Internet Gaming Disorder in the DSM-5. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 17:972 [Google Scholar]
  90. Petry NM, Stinson FS, Grant BF. 2005. Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J. Clin. Psychiatry 66:5564–74 [Google Scholar]
  91. Petry NM, Weinstock J, Ledgerwood DM, Morasco B. 2008. A randomized trial of brief interventions for problem and pathological gamblers. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 76:2318–28 [Google Scholar]
  92. Pontes HM, Király O, Demetrovics Z, Griffiths MD. 2014. The conceptualisation and measurement of DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: the development of the IGD-20 Test. PLOS ONE 9:10e110137 [Google Scholar]
  93. Rehbein F, Baier D. 2013. Family-, media-, and school-related risk factors of video game addiction. J. Media Psychol. 25:3118–28 [Google Scholar]
  94. Rehbein F, Kliem S, Baier D, Mößle T, Petry NM. 2015. Prevalence of Internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a state-wide representative sample. Addiction 110:5842–51 [Google Scholar]
  95. Rehbein F, Kleimann M, Mössle T. 2010. Prevalence and risk factors of video game dependency in adolescence: results of a German nationwide survey. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 13:3269–77 [Google Scholar]
  96. Rumpf HJ, Vermulst AA, Bischof A, Kastirke N, Gürtler D. et al. 2014. Occurrence of Internet addiction in a general population sample: a latent class analysis. Eur. Addict. Res. 20:4159–66 [Google Scholar]
  97. Rush BR, Bassani DG, Urbanoski KA, Castel S. 2008. Influence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders on the prevalence of problem gambling in Canada. Addiction 103:111847–56 [Google Scholar]
  98. Saiz-Ruiz J, Blanco C, Ibáñez A, Masramon X, Gómez MM. et al. 2005. Sertraline treatment of pathological gambling: a pilot study. J. Clin. Psychiatry 66:128–33 [Google Scholar]
  99. Slutske WS, Ellingson JM, Richmond-Rakerd LS, Zhu G, Martin NG. 2013. Shared genetic vulnerability for disordered gambling and alcohol use disorder in men and women: evidence from a national community-based Australian Twin Study. Twin Res. Hum. Genet. 16:2525–34 [Google Scholar]
  100. Slutske WS, Moffitt TE, Poulton R, Caspi A. 2012. Undercontrolled temperament at age 3 predicts disordered gambling at age 32: a longitudinal study of a complete birth cohort. Psychol. Sci. 23:5510–16 [Google Scholar]
  101. Smith DP, Battersby MW, Harvey PW, Pols RG, Ladouceur R. 2015. Cognitive versus exposure therapy for problem gambling: randomised controlled trial. Behav. Res. Ther. 69:100–10 [Google Scholar]
  102. Song J, Park JH, Han DH, Roh S, Son JH. et al. 2016. Comparative study of the effects of bupropion and escitalopram on Internet gaming disorder. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 70:11527–35 [Google Scholar]
  103. Sproston K, Erens B, Orford J. 2000. Gambling Behaviour in Britain: Results from the British Gambling Prevalence Survey London: Natl. Cent. Soc. Res
  104. Starcevic V, Khazaal Y. 2017. Relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders: What is known and what is yet to be learned?. Front. Psychiatry 8:53 [Google Scholar]
  105. Stavropoulos V, Gomez R, Steen E, Beard C, Liew L, Griffiths MD. 2017. The longitudinal association between anxiety and Internet addiction in adolescence: the moderating effect of classroom extraversion. J. Behav. Addict. 6:237–47 [Google Scholar]
  106. Stein DJ, Phillips KA, Bolton D, Fulford KW, Sadler JZ, Kendler KS. 2010. What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V. Psychol. Med. 40:111759–65 [Google Scholar]
  107. Stinchfield R. 2002. Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Addict. Behav. 27:11–19 [Google Scholar]
  108. Strittmatter E, Parzer P, Brunner R, Fischer G, Durkee T. et al. 2016. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 25:7725–34 [Google Scholar]
  109. Swing EL, Gentile DA, Anderson CA, Walsh DA. 2010. Television and video game exposure and the development of attention problems. Pediatrics 126:2214–21 [Google Scholar]
  110. TNS Emnid 2011. Spielen mit und um Geld in Deutschland Frankfurt: AWI GmbH
  111. Toneatto T, Brands B, Selby P. 2009. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone in the treatment of concurrent alcohol use disorder and pathological gambling. Am. J. Addict. 18:3219–25 [Google Scholar]
  112. Tsitsika A, Janikian M, Schoenmakers TM, Tzavela EC, Olafsson K. et al. 2014. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 17:8528–35 [Google Scholar]
  113. van Holst RJ, van der Meer JN, McLaren DG, van den Brink W, Veltman DJ, Goudriaan AE. 2012. Interactions between affective and cognitive processing systems in problematic gamblers: a functional connectivity study. PLOS ONE 7:11e49923 [Google Scholar]
  114. Van Rooij AJ, Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD, Shorter GW, Schoenmakers MT, Van de Mheen D. 2014. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents. J. Behav. Addict. 3:3157–65 [Google Scholar]
  115. Van Rooij AJ, Schoenmakers TM, Vermulst AA, Van den Eijnden RJ, Van de Mheen D. 2011. Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction 106:1205–12 [Google Scholar]
  116. Vink JM, van Beijsterveldt TC, Huppertz C, Bartels M, Boomsma DI. 2016. Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents. Addict. Biol. 21:2460–68 [Google Scholar]
  117. Vitaro F, Arseneault L, Tremblay RE. 1999. Impulsivity predicts problem gambling in low SES adolescent males. Addiction 94:4565–75 [Google Scholar]
  118. Walther B, Morgenstern M, Hanewinkel R. 2012. Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming. Eur. Addict. Res. 18:4167–74 [Google Scholar]
  119. Wardle H, Moody A, Griffiths M, Orford J, Volberg R. 2011. Defining the online gambler and patterns of behaviour integration: evidence from the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010. Int. Gambl. Stud. 11:3339–56 [Google Scholar]
  120. Wang L, Luo J, Bai Y, Kong J, Luo J. et al. 2013. Internet addiction of adolescents in China: prevalence, predictors, and association with well-being. Addict. Res. Theory 21:62–69 [Google Scholar]
  121. Weng CB, Qian RB, Fu XM, Lin B, Han XP. et al. 2013. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction. Eur. J. Radiol. 82:81308–12 [Google Scholar]
  122. Wickwire EM Jr., Burke RS, Brown SA, Parker JD, May RK. 2008. Psychometric evaluation of the National Opinion Research Center DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS). Am. J. Addict. 17:5392–95 [Google Scholar]
  123. Wittek CT, Finserås TR, Pallesen S, Mentzoni RA, Hanss D. et al. 2016. Prevalence and predictors of video game addiction: a study based on a national representative sample of gamers. Int. J. Ment. Health Addict. 14:5672–86 [Google Scholar]
  124. Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Chen CS, Chen CC. 2009. The association between harmful alcohol use and Internet addiction among college students: comparison of personality. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 63:2218–24 [Google Scholar]
  125. Yoo YS, Cho OH, Cha KS. 2014. Associations between overuse of the internet and mental health in adolescents. Nurs. Health Sci. 16:2193–200 [Google Scholar]
  126. Young KS. 1998. Caught in the Net: How to Recognize Signs of Internet Addiction and a Winning Strategy for Recovery New York: Wiley
  127. Yuan K, Cheng P, Dong T, Bi Y, Xing L. et al. 2013. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction. PLOS ONE 8:1e53055 [Google Scholar]
  128. Zhong X, Zu S, Sha S, Tao R, Zhao C. et al. 2011. The effect of a family-based intervention model on Internet-addicted Chinese adolescents. Soc. Behav. Personal. 39:81021–34 [Google Scholar]
  129. Zhou Y, Lin FC, Du YS, Qin LD, Zhao ZM. et al. 2011. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: a voxel-based morphometry study. Eur. J. Radiol. 79:192–95 [Google Scholar]
  130. Zhu TM, Li H, Jin RJ, Zheng Z, Luo Y. et al. 2012. Effects of electroacupuncture combined psycho-intervention on cognitive function and event-related potentials P300 and mismatch negativity in patients with internet addiction. Chin. J. Integr. Med. 18:2146–51 [Google Scholar]
  131. Zois E, Kiefer F, Lemenager T, Vollstädt-Klein S, Mann K, Fauth-Bühler M. 2017. Frontal cortex gray matter volume alterations in pathological gambling occur independently from substance use disorder. Addict. Biol. 22:3864–72 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error