1932

Abstract

Social Safety Theory hypothesizes that developing and maintaining friendly social bonds is a fundamental organizing principle of human behavior and that threats to social safety are a critical feature of psychological stressors that increase risk for disease. Central to this formulation is the fact that the human brain and immune system are principally designed to keep the body biologically safe, which they do by continually monitoring and responding to social, physical, and microbial threats in the environment. Because situations involving social conflict, isolation, devaluation, rejection, and exclusion historically increased risk for physical injury and infection, anticipatory neural–immune reactivity to social threat was likely highly conserved. This neurocognitive and immunologic ability for humans to symbolically represent and respond to potentially dangerous social situations is ultimately critical for survival. When sustained, however, this multilevel biological threat response can increase individuals’ risk for viral infections and several inflammation-related disease conditions that dominate present-day morbidity and mortality.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045159
2020-05-07
2024-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/16/1/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045159.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045159&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adler NE, Rehkopf DH. 2008. U.S. disparities in health: descriptions, causes, and mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29:235–52
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall SN 1978. Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
  3. Akhtar S, Barlow J. 2018. Forgiveness therapy for the promotion of mental well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma Violence Abuse 19:107–22
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Allbutt C. 1895. Nervous diseases and modern life. Contemp. Rev. 67:210–17
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Allen KA, Vella-Brodrick D, Waters L 2016. Fostering school belonging in secondary schools using a socio-ecological framework. Educ. Dev. Psychol. 33:97–121
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Allen NB, Badcock PB. 2003. The social risk hypothesis of depressed mood: evolutionary, psychosocial, and neurobiological perspectives. Psychol. Bull. 129:887–913
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Aspelund A, Antila S, Proulx ST, Karlsen TV, Karaman S et al. 2015. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules. J. Exp. Med. 212:991–99
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Babey SH, Wolstein J, Becker TL, Scheitler AJ 2019. School Discipline Practices Associated with Adolescent School Connectedness and Engagement Los Angeles: UCLA Cent. Health Policy Res.
  9. Barrett LF. 2017. How Emotions Are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  10. Baumeister RF, Leary MR. 1995. The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychol. Bull. 117:497–529This landmark review provides a comprehensive synthesis of research describing the many benefits of social belonging.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bernard C. 1865. Introduction à L'étude de la Médecine Expérimentale Paris: J.B. Baillière
  12. Bickart KC, Dickerson BC, Barrett LF 2014. The amygdala as a hub in brain networks that support social life. Neuropsychologia 63:235–48
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Black DS, Slavich GM. 2016. Mindfulness meditation and the immune system: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1373:13–24
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bloom P. 2013. Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil New York: Crown
  15. Böbel TS, Hackl SB, Langgartner D, Jarczok MN, Rohleder N et al. 2018. Less immune activation following social stress in rural versus urban participants raised with regular or no animal contact, respectively. PNAS 115:5259–64
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Borman GD, Rozek CS, Pyne J, Hanselman P 2019. Reappraising academic and social adversity improves middle school students’ academic achievement, behavior, and well-being. PNAS 116:16286–91
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Brown GW, Harris TO. 1978. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women New York: Free Press
  18. Brown GW, Harris TO, Hepworth C 1995. Loss, humiliation and entrapment among women developing depression: a patient and non-patient comparison. Psychol. Med. 25:7–21
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brundin L, Erhardt S, Bryleva EY, Achtyes ED, Postolache TT 2015. The role of inflammation in suicidal behaviour. Acta. Psychiatry Scand. 132:192–203
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cannon WB. 1929. Organization for physiological homeostasis. Physiol. Rev. 9:399–431
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Carter CS. 2014. Oxytocin pathways and the evolution of human behavior. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 65:17–39
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Carver CS, Scheier MF. 1999. Stress, coping, and self-regulatory processes. Handbook of Personality LA Pervin, OP John 553–75 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Chiang JJ, Bower JE, Irwin MR, Taylor SE, Fuligni AJ 2017. Adiposity moderates links from early adversity and depressive symptoms to inflammatory reactivity to acute stress during late adolescence. Brain Behav. Immun. 66:146–55
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chiang JJ, Cole SW, Bower JE, Irwin MR, Taylor SE et al. 2019. Daily interpersonal stress, sleep duration, and gene regulation during late adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology 103:147–55
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Choi JK, Bowles S. 2007. The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science 318:636–40
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Clark DA, Beck AT. 1999. Scientific Foundations of Cognitive Theory of Depression New York: Wiley
  27. Cohen S, Murphy ML, Prather AA 2019. Ten surprising facts about stressful life events and disease risk. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 70:577–97
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cole SW, Arevalo JM, Takahashi R, Sloan EK, Lutgendorf SK et al. 2010. Computational identification of gene-social environment interaction at the human IL6 locus. PNAS 107:5681–86
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Creswell JD, Pacilio LE, Lindsay EK, Brown KW 2014. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 44:1–12
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Crişan TO, Netea MG, Joosten LA 2016. Innate immune memory: implications for host responses to damage‐associated molecular patterns. Eur. J. Immunol. 46:817–28
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Crum AJ, Akinola M, Martin A, Fath S 2017. The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress. Anxiety Stress Coping 30:379–95This study illustrates how modifying “stress mindset” alters cognitive, affective, and physiologic reactivity to social threat.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Darwin CR. 1859. On the Origin of Species London: John Murray
  33. Decety J. 2015. The neural pathways, development and functions of empathy. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 3:1–6
    [Google Scholar]
  34. DeWall CN, MacDonald G, Webster GD, Masten CL, Baumeister RF et al. 2010. Acetaminophen reduces social pain: behavioral and neural evidence. Psychol. Sci. 21:931–37
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dhabhar FS, Malarkey WB, Neri E, McEwen BS 2012. Stress-induced redistribution of immune cells—from barracks to boulevards to battlefields: a tale of three hormones—Curt Richter Award Winner. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:1345–68
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Di Q, Wang Y, Zanobetti A, Wang Y, Koutrakis P et al. 2017. Air pollution and mortality in the Medicare population. N. Engl. J. Med. 376:2513–22
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dickerson SS. 2008. Emotional and physiological responses to social‐evaluative threat. Soc. Personal. Psychol. Compass 2:1362–78
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dinan TG, Cryan JF. 2012. Regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota: implications for psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:1369–78
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Doblhammer G, Vaupel JW. 2001. Lifespan depends on month of birth. PNAS 98:2934–39
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Dunbar RI, Shultz S. 2007. Evolution in the social brain. Science 317:1344–47
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Eberhardt JL. 2019. Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do New York: Viking
  42. Epel ES, Crosswell AD, Mayer SE, Prather AA, Slavich GM et al. 2018. More than a feeling: a unified view of stress measurement for population science. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 49:146–69
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Filiano AJ, Xu Y, Tustison NJ, Marsh RL, Baker W et al. 2016. Unexpected role of interferon-γ in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behaviour. Nature 535:425–29
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Finch CE, Crimmins EM. 2004. Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans. Science 305:1736–39
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Fiske ST, Cuddy AJ, Glick P 2007. Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11:78–83
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Foster JA, McVey Neufeld KA 2013. Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci 36:305–12
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Frith CD, Frith U. 2006. The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron 50:531–34
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Furman D, Campisi J, Verdin E, Carrera-Bastos P, Targ S et al. 2019. Chronic inflammation in the etiology of disease across the life span. Nat. Med. 25:1822–32
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Gallegos AM, Trabold N, Cerulli C, Pigeon WR 2019. Sleep and interpersonal violence: a systematic review. Trauma Violence Abuse In press. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838019852633
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  50. Gehlbach H, Brinkworth ME, King AM, Hsu LM, McIntyre J, Rogers T 2016. Creating birds of similar feathers: leveraging similarity to improve teacher–student relationships and academic achievement. J. Educ. Psychol 108:34252
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Gilbert P. 2005. Social mentalities: a biopsychosocial and evolutionary approach to social relationships. Interpersonal Cognition MW Baldwin 299–333 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gilbert P, Allan S. 1998. The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: an exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychol. Med. 28:585–98
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Giletta M, Slavich GM, Rudolph KD, Hastings PD, Nock MK, Prinstein MJ 2018. Peer victimization predicts heightened inflammatory reactivity to social stress in cognitively vulnerable adolescents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 59:129–39
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Gostic KM, Ambrose M, Worobey M, Lloyd-Smith JO 2016. Potent protection against H5N1 and H7N9 influenza via childhood hemagglutinin imprinting. Science 354:722–26
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Goyer JP, Cohen GL, Cook JE, Master A, Apfel N et al. 2019. Targeted identity safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among ethnic-minority boys. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 117:229–59
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Guarneri‐White ME, Arana AA, Boyd EQ, Jensen‐Campbell LA 2018. It's more than skin‐deep: the relationship between social victimization and telomere length in adolescence. Aggress. Behav. 44:337–47
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hammen C. 2005. Stress and depression. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1:293–319
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hanke ML, Powell ND, Stiner LM, Bailey MT, Sheridan JF 2012. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress. Brain Behav. Immun. 26:1150–59
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Hare B. 2017. Survival of the friendliest: Homo sapiens evolved via selection for prosociality. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 68:155–86
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Haslam C, Best D, Dingle GA, Staiger PK, Savic M et al. 2019. Social group membership before treatment for substance dependence predicts early identification and engagement with treatment communities. Addict. Res. Theory 27:363–72
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Haslam C, Holme A, Haslam SA, Iyer A, Jetten J, Williams WH 2008. Maintaining group memberships: social identity continuity predicts well-being after stroke. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 18:671–91
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hawkins AT, Pallangyo AJ, Herman AM, Schaumeier MJ, Smith AD et al. 2016. The effect of social integration on outcomes after major lower extremity amputation. J. Vasc. Surg. 63:154–62
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hayes SC, Strosahl KD, Wilson KG 2009. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
  64. Henrich J. 2015. The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  65. Hofmann SG, Grossman P, Hinton DE 2011. Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: potential for psychological interventions. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31:1126–32
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hofmann SG, Otto MW. 2017. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: Evidence-Based and Disorder-Specific Treatment Techniques New York: Routledge, 2nd ed..
  67. Holmes TH, Rahe RH. 1967. The social readjustment rating scale. J. Psychosom. Res. 11:213–21
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Holt-Lunstad J. 2018. Fostering social connection in the workplace. Am. J. Health Promot. 32:1307–12
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Holt-Lunstad J, Robles TF, Sbarra DA 2017. Advancing social connection as a public health priority in the United States. Am. Psychol. 72:517–30This article argues that promoting social connection should be a top public health priority.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Baker M, Harris T, Stephenson D 2015. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 10:227–37
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Layton JB 2010. Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLOS Med 7:e1000316
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Iikuni N, Lam K, Queenie L, Lu L, Matarese G, Cava AL 2008. Leptin and inflammation. Curr. Immunol. Rev. 4:70–79
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Irwin MR. 2019. Sleep and inflammation: partners in sickness and in health. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 19:702–15
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Irwin MR, Cole SW. 2011. Reciprocal regulation of the neural and innate immune systems. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11:625–32This comprehensive review describes several bidirectional pathways linking neural and innate immune system activity.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Irwin MR, Slavich GM. 2017. Psychoneuroimmunology. Handbook of Psychophysiology JT Cacioppo, LG Tassinary, GG Berntson 377–98 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 4th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Jones JM, Haslam SA, Jetten J, Williams WH, Morris R, Saroyan S 2011. That which doesn't kill us can make us stronger (and more satisfied with life): the contribution of personal and social changes to well-being after acquired brain injury. Psychol. Health 26:353–69
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kagan J. 2016. An overly permissive extension. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 11:442–50This perspective discusses the conceptual imprecision, conflict, and confusion plaguing contemporary life stress research.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kawai T, Akira S. 2006. Innate immune recognition of viral infection. Nat. Immunol. 7:131–37
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kemeny ME. 2009. Psychobiological responses to social threat: evolution of a psychological model in psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav. Immun. 23:11–9
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kennedy DP, Adolphs R. 2012. The social brain in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16:559–72
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Wilson SJ. 2017. Lovesick: how couples’ relationships influence health. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 13:421–43
    [Google Scholar]
  82. King CA, Arango A, Kramer A, Busby D, Czyz E et al. 2019. Association of the youth-nominated support team intervention for suicidal adolescents with 11- to 14-year mortality outcomes: secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 76:492–98
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kross E, Ayduk O. 2017. Self-distancing: theory, research, and current directions. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 55:81–136
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Larson SJ, Dunn AJ. 2001. Behavioral effects of cytokines. Brain Behav. Immun. 15:371–87
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. 1984. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping Berlin: Springer
  86. Leary MR 2001. Interpersonal Rejection New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  87. Louveau A, Smirnov I, Keyes TJ, Eccles JD, Rouhani SJ et al. 2015. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels. Nature 523:337–41
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C 2009. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10:434–45
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lutgendorf SK, De Geest K, Bender D, Ahmed A, Goodheart MJ et al. 2012. Social influences on clinical outcomes of patients with ovarian cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 30:2885–90
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Maier SF, Seligman ME. 2016. Learned helplessness at fifty: insights from neuroscience. Psychol. Rev. 123:349–67
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Malat J, Jacquez F, Slavich GM 2017. Measuring lifetime stress exposure and protective factors in life course research on racial inequality and birth outcomes. Stress 20:379–85
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Massing-Schaffer M, Helms SW, Rudolph KD, Slavich GM, Hastings PD et al. 2019. Preliminary associations among relational victimization, targeted rejection, and suicidality in adolescents: a prospective study. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 48:288–95
    [Google Scholar]
  93. McDade TW. 2012. Early environments and the ecology of inflammation. PNAS 109:17281–88
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McDade TW, Hoke M, Borja JB, Adair LS, Kuzawa C 2013. Do environments in infancy moderate the association between stress and inflammation in adulthood? Initial evidence from a birth cohort in the Philippines. Brain Behav. Immun. 31:23–30
    [Google Scholar]
  95. McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D'Alessio AC, Dymov S, Labonté B et al. 2009. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat. Neurosci. 12:342–48
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Meyer HC, Odriozola P, Cohodes EM, Mandell JD, Li A et al. 2019. Ventral hippocampus interacts with prelimbic cortex during inhibition of threat response via learned safety in both mice and humans. PNAS 116:26970–79
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Miller GE, Brody GH, Yu T, Chen E 2014. A family-oriented psychosocial intervention reduces inflammation in low-SES African American youth. PNAS 111:11287–92
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Monroe SM. 2008. Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring life stress. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 4:33–52
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Monroe SM, Slavich GM. 2016. Psychological stressors: overview. Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior G Fink 109–15 Cambridge, MA: Academic, 1st ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Monroe SM, Slavich GM. 2020. Major life events: a review of conceptual, definitional, measurement issues, and practices. The Oxford Handbook of Stress and Mental Health KL Harkness, EP Hayden 7–26 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Mookadam F, Arthur HM. 2004. Social support and its relationship to morbidity and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview. Arch. Intern. Med. 164:1514–18
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Murphy ML, Slavich GM, Chen E, Miller GE 2015. Targeted rejection predicts decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression and increased symptom severity in youth with asthma. Psychol. Sci. 26:111–21
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Murphy ML, Slavich GM, Rohleder N, Miller GE 2013. Targeted rejection triggers differential pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression in adolescents as a function of social status. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 1:30–40
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Muscatell KA, Brosso SN, Humphreys KL 2018. Socioeconomic status and inflammation: a meta-analysis. Mol. Psychiatry. In press. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0259-2
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  105. Nock MK. 2009. Why do people hurt themselves? New insights into the nature and functions of self-injury. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 18:78–83
    [Google Scholar]
  106. O'Donovan A, Slavich GM, Epel ES, Neylan TC 2013. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat as a mechanism linking anxiety with increased risk for diseases of aging. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37:96–108
    [Google Scholar]
  107. OECD (Organ. Econ. Co-operation Dev.) 2011. Doing Better for Families Paris: OECD
  108. Olvera Alvarez HA, Kubzansky LD, Campen MJ, Slavich GM 2018. Early life stress, air pollution, inflammation, and disease: an integrative review and immunologic model of social-environmental adversity and lifespan health. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 92:226–42
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Patton GC, Bond L, Carlin JB, Thomas L, Butler H et al. 2006. Promoting social inclusion in schools: a group-randomized trial of effects on student health risk behavior and well-being. Am. J. Public Health 96:1582–87
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Pavlov VA, Tracey KJ. 2012. The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex—linking immunity and metabolism. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 8:743–54
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Pietromonaco PR, Collins NL. 2017. Interpersonal mechanisms linking close relationships to health. Am. Psychol. 72:531–42
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Reid BM, Doom JR, Argote RB, Correa-Burrows P, Lozoff B et al. 2019. Pathways to inflammation in adolescence through early adversity, childhood depressive symptoms, and body mass index: a prospective longitudinal study of Chilean infants. Brain Behav. Immun In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.06.003
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  113. Reilly SM, Saltiel AR. 2017. Adapting to obesity with adipose tissue inflammation. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 13:633–43
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Rizzolatti G, Sinigaglia C. 2016. The mirror mechanism: a basic principle of brain function. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 17:757–65
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Rook GA. 2013. Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health. PNAS 110:18360–67
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Rook GA, Bäckhed F, Levin BR, McFall-Ngai MJ, McLean AR 2017. Evolution, human-microbe interactions, and life history plasticity. Lancet 390:521–30This enlightening review explains microbial diversity and its relation to human evolution, health, and behavior.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Schaefer L. 2014. Complexity of danger: the diverse nature of damage-associated molecular patterns. J. Biol. Chem. 289:35237–45
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Selye H. 1976. The Stress of Life New York: McGraw-Hill, 2nd ed..
  119. Shields GS, Moons WG, Slavich GM 2017. Inflammation, self-regulation, and health: an immunologic model of self-regulatory failure. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 12:588–612
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Shields GS, Slavich GM. 2017. Lifetime stress exposure and health: a review of contemporary assessment methods and biological mechanisms. Soc. Personal. Psychol. Compass 11:8e12335
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Shields GS, Spahr CM, Slavich GM 2020. Psychosocial interventions and immune system function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Psychiatry In press
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Silk JB. 2007. Social components of fitness in primate groups. Science 317:1347–51
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Slavich GM. 2015. Understanding inflammation, its regulation, and relevance for health: a top scientific and public priority. Brain Behav. Immun. 45:13–14
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Slavich GM. 2016. Life stress and health: a review of conceptual issues and recent findings. Teach. Psychol. 43:346–55
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Slavich GM. 2019. Stressnology: the primitive (and problematic) study of life stress exposure and pressing need for better measurement. Brain Behav. Immun. 75:3–5
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Slavich GM. 2020. Psychoneuroimmunology of stress and mental health. The Oxford Handbook of Stress and Mental Health KL Harkness, EP Hayden 519–46 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Slavich GM, Auerbach RP. 2018. Stress and its sequelae: depression, suicide, inflammation, and physical illness. APA Handbook of Psychopathology, Vol. 1: Psychopathology: Understanding, Assessing, and Treating Adult Mental Disorders JN Butcher, JM Hooley 375–402 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Slavich GM, Cole SW. 2013. The emerging field of human social genomics. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 1:331–48
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Slavich GM, Irwin MR. 2014. From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychol. Bull. 140:774–815This review describes Social Signal Transduction Theory of Depression, which is the theoretical precursor to Social Safety Theory.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Slavich GM, O'Donovan A, Epel ES, Kemeny ME 2010a. Black sheep get the blues: a psychobiological model of social rejection and depression. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 35:39–45
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Slavich GM, Sacher J. 2019. Stress, sex hormones, inflammation, and major depressive disorder: extending Social Signal Transduction Theory of Depression to account for sex differences in mood disorders. Psychopharmacology 236:3063–79
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Slavich GM, Shields GS, Deal BD, Gregory A, Toussaint LL 2019. Alleviating social pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of forgiveness and acetaminophen. Ann. Behav. Med. 53:1045–54
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Slavich GM, Tartter MA, Brennan PA, Hammen C 2014. Endogenous opioid system influences depressive reactions to socially painful targeted rejection life events. Psychoneuroendocrinology 49:141–49
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Slavich GM, Thornton T, Torres LD, Monroe SM, Gotlib IH 2009. Targeted rejection predicts hastened onset of major depression. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 28:223–43
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Slavich GM, Way BM, Eisenberger NI, Taylor SE 2010b. Neural sensitivity to social rejection is associated with inflammatory responses to social stress. PNAS 107:14817–22This was the first study to elucidate neurocognitive mechanisms underlying inflammatory reactivity to social stress.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Sorrells SF, Caso JR, Munhoz CD, Sapolsky RM 2009. The stressed CNS: when glucocorticoids aggravate inflammation. Neuron 64:33–39
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Stewart JG, Shields GS, Esposito EC, Cosby EA, Allen NB et al. 2019. Life stress and suicide in adolescents. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 47:1707–22
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Strayhorn TL. 2018. College Students’ Sense of Belonging: A Key to Educational Success for All Students New York: Routledge
  139. Stringhini S, Carmeli C, Jokela M, Avendaño M, Muennig P et al. 2017. Socioeconomic status and the 25 x 25 risk factors as determinants of premature mortality: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of 1.7 million men and women. Lancet 389:1229–37
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Thames AD, Irwin MR, Breen EC, Cole SW 2019. Experienced discrimination and racial differences in leukocyte gene expression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 106:277–83
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Thayer JF, Sternberg EM. 2010. Neural aspects of immunomodulation: focus on the vagus nerve. Brain Behav. Immun. 24:1223–28
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Travis J. 2009. On the origin of the immune system. Science 324:580–82
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Twenge JM, Baumeister RF, DeWall CN, Ciarocco NJ, Bartels JM 2007. Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 92:56–66
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Uchino BN, Trettevik R, Kent de Grey RG, Cronan S, Hogan J, Baucom BR 2018. Social support, social integration, and inflammatory cytokines: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol 37:462–71
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Umberson D, Crosnoe R, Reczek C 2010. Social relationships and health behavior across the life course. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 36:139–57
    [Google Scholar]
  146. UNICEF 2014. Hidden in Plain Sight: A Statistical Analysis of Violence Against Children New York: UNICEF
  147. United Nations 2018. 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects New York: United Nations
  148. Valtorta NK, Kanaan M, Gilbody S, Ronzi S, Hanratty B 2016. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies. Heart 102:1009–16
    [Google Scholar]
  149. van Luenen S, Garnefski N, Spinhoven P, Spaan P, Dusseldorp E, Kraaij V 2018. The benefits of psychosocial interventions for mental health in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Behav 22:9–42
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Vogt TM, Mullooly JP, Ernst D, Pope CR, Hollis JF 1992. Social networks as predictors of ischemic heart disease, cancer, stroke and hypertension: incidence, survival and mortality. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 45:659–66
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Walton GM, Cohen GL. 2011. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science 331:1447–51This landmark RCT demonstrated that enhancing social belonging improves threat perception, academic performance, health, and well-being.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Walton GM, Cohen GL, Cwir D, Spencer SJ 2012. Mere belonging: the power of social connections. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol 102:51332
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Weiner H. 1992. Perturbing the Organism: The Biology of Stressful Experience Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago PressThis book provides a groundbreaking summary of research demonstrating the impressive specificity of stress–physiology–health links.
  154. Weiss JM, Simson PG. 1985. Neurochemical mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression. Stress and Coping TM Field, PM McCabe, N Schneiderman 93–116 Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  155. WHO (World Health Organ.) 2016. Ambient Air Pollution: A Global Assessment of Exposure and Burden of Disease Geneva: WHO
  156. Williams KD. 2007. Ostracism. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 58:425–52
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Williams KD, Nida SA. 2014. Ostracism and public policy. Policy Insights Behav. Brain Sci. 1:38–45
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Worthington EL Jr 2013. Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Theory and Application New York: Routledge
  159. Yazawa A, Inoue Y, Stickley A, Li D, Du J, Watanabe C 2015. The effects of season of birth on the inflammatory response to psychological stress in Hainan Island, China. PLOS ONE 10:e0139602
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Zaki J. 2019. The War for Kindness: Building Empathy in a Fractured World New York: Crown
  161. Zhang Q, Raoof M, Chen Y, Sumi Y, Sursal T et al. 2010. Circulating mitochondrial DAMPs cause inflammatory responses to injury. Nature 464:104–7
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045159
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045159
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error