Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abebe DS, Lien L, Torgersen L, von Soest T. 2012. Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: a population-based, longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 12:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  2. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  3. Arnold AP. 2009. The organizational-activational hypothesis as the foundation for a unified theory of sexual differentiation of mammalian tissues. Horm. Behav. 55:570–78 [Google Scholar]
  4. Asarian L, Geary N. 2006. Modulation of appetite by gonadal steroid hormones. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 361:1251–63 [Google Scholar]
  5. Asarian L, Geary N. 2013. Sex differences in the physiology of eating. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305:R1250–67 [Google Scholar]
  6. Babbs RK, Wojnicki FH, Corwin RL. 2011. Effect of 2-hydroxyestradiol on binge intake in rats. Physiol. Behav. 103:508–12 [Google Scholar]
  7. Babbs RKW, Wojnicki FH, Corwin RL. 2012. Assessing binge eating: an analysis of data previously collected in bingeing rats. Appetite 59:478–82 [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker JH, Lichtenstein P, Kendler KS. 2009b. Intrauterine testosterone exposure and risk for disordered eating. Br. J. Psychiatry 194:375–76 [Google Scholar]
  9. Baker JH, Maes HM, Lissner L, Aggen SH, Lichtenstein P, Kendler K. 2009a. Genetic risk factors for disordered eating in adolescent males and females. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 118:576–86 [Google Scholar]
  10. Baker JH, Thornton LM, Bulik CM, Kendler KS, Lichtenstein P. 2012. Shared genetic effects between age at menarche and disordered eating. J. Adolesc. Health 51:491–96 [Google Scholar]
  11. Barth C, Villringer A, Sacher J. 2015. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods. Front. Neurosci. 9:70–89 [Google Scholar]
  12. Becker AE, Burwell RA, Herzog DB, Hamburg P, Gilman SE. 2002. Eating behaviours and attitudes following prolonged exposure to television among Fijian adolescent girls. Br. J. Psychiatry 180:509–14 [Google Scholar]
  13. Becker JB. 2009. Sexual differentiation of motivation: a novel mechanism?. Horm. Behav. 55:646–54 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bell DD, Zucker I. 1971. Sex differences in body weight and eating: organization and activation by gonadal hormones in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 7:27–34 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bentley C, Grawick-Sarll K, Harrison C, Mond J. 2015. Sex differences in psychosocial impairment associated with eating disorder features in adolescents: a school-based study. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 48:633–40 [Google Scholar]
  16. Berenbaum SA, Bryk KK, Nowak N, Quigley CA, Moffat S. 2009. Fingers as a marker of prenatal androgen exposure. Endocrinology 150:5119–24 [Google Scholar]
  17. Berg KC, Peterson CB, Frazier P, Crow SJ. 2011. Convergence of scores on the interview and questionnaire versions of the eating disorder examination: a meta-analytic review. Psychol. Assess. 23:714–24 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bielert C, Busse C. 1983. Influences of ovarian hormones on the food intake and feeding of captive and wild female chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Physiol. Behav. 30:103–11 [Google Scholar]
  19. Boggiano MM, Chandler PC, Viana JB, Oswald KD, Maldonado CR, Wauford PK. 2005. Combined dieting and stress evoke exaggerated startle responses to opioids in binge-eating rats. Behav. Neurosci. 119:1207–14 [Google Scholar]
  20. Breedlove SM. 1994. Sexual differentiation of the human nervous system. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45:389–418 [Google Scholar]
  21. Breedlove SM. 2010. Minireview: organizational hypothesis: instances of the fingerpost. Endocrinology 151:4116–22 [Google Scholar]
  22. Brown WM, Hines M, Fane BA, Breedlove SM. 2002. Masculinized finger length patterns in human males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Horm. Behav. 42:380–86 [Google Scholar]
  23. Buffenstein R, Poppitt SD, McDevitt RM, Prentice AM. 1995. Food intake and the menstrual cycle: a retrospective analysis, with implications for appetite research. Physiol. Behav. 58:1067–77 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Kendler KS. 1998. Heritability of binge-eating and broadly defined bulimia nervosa. Biol. Psychiatry 44:1210–18 [Google Scholar]
  25. Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Wade TD, Kendler KS. 2000. Twin studies of eating disorders: a review. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 17:251–61 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cao X. 2014. Estrogens stimulate serotonin neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice. J. Clin. Investig. 124:4351–62 [Google Scholar]
  27. Carlin J. 2016. Removal of high-fat diet after chronic exposure drives binge behavior and dopaminergic dysregulation in female mice. Neuroscience 326:170–79 [Google Scholar]
  28. Carmina E, Orio F, Palomba S, Longo RA, Lombardi G, Lobo RA. 2005. Ovarian size and blood flow in women with polycystic syndrome and their correlations with endocrine parameters. Fertil. Steril. 84:413–19 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cohen-Bendahan CC, Buitelaar JK, van Goozen SH, Orlebeke JF, Cohen-Kettenis PT. 2005. Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls. Horm. Behav. 47:230–37 [Google Scholar]
  30. Collaer M, Hines M. 1995. Human behavioral sex differences: a role for gonadal hormones during early development?. Psychol. Bull. 118:55–107 [Google Scholar]
  31. Consoli DC, Tabarin A, Drago AF. 2009. Binge-like eating in mice. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 42:402–8 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cottone P, Sabino V, Steardo L, Zorrilla EP. 2008. Opioid-dependent anticipatory negative contrast and binge-like eating in rats with limited access to highly preferred food. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:524–35 [Google Scholar]
  33. Craft RM. 2008. Sex differences in analgesic, reinforcing, discriminative, and motoric effects of opioids. Exp. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 16:376–85 [Google Scholar]
  34. Croll J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Ireland M. 2002. Prevalence and risk and protective factors related to disordered eating behaviors among adolescents: relationship to gender and ethnicity. J. Adolesc. Health 31:166–75 [Google Scholar]
  35. Culbert KM, Breedlove SM, Burt SA, Klump KL. 2008. Prenatal hormone exposure and risk for eating disorders: a comparison of opposite- and same-sex twins. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 65:329–36 [Google Scholar]
  36. Culbert KM, Breedlove SM, Nigg JT, Sisk CL, Burt SA, Klump KL. 2013. The emergence of sex differences in risk for disordered eating attitudes during puberty: a role for prenatal testosterone exposure. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:420–32 [Google Scholar]
  37. Culbert KM, Breedlove SM, Sisk CL, Keel PK, Neale MC. et al. 2015. Age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: developmental windows of expression?. Behav. Neurosci. 129:18–36 [Google Scholar]
  38. Culbert KM, Burt SA, McGue M, Iacono WG, Klump KL. 2009. Puberty and the genetic diathesis of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 118:788–96 [Google Scholar]
  39. Culbert KM, Burt SA, Sisk CL, Nigg JT, Klump KL. 2014. The effects of circulating testosterone and pubertal maturation on risk for disordered eating symptoms in adolescent males. Psychol. Med. 44:2271–86 [Google Scholar]
  40. Culbert KM, Sinclair E, Hildebrandt BA, Burt SA, Sisk CL, Klump KL. 2016. Perinatal testosterone exposure contributes to sex differences in risk for binge eating after pubertal onset: evidence from animal and human paradigms. Presented at Int. Conf. Eat. Disord., May 7, San Francisco [Google Scholar]
  41. Czyzyk TAS, Sahr AE, Statnick MA. 2010. A model of binge-like eating behavior in mice that does not require food deprivation of stress. Obes. J. 18:1710–17 [Google Scholar]
  42. De Lorme K, Bell MR, Sisk CL. 2013. The teenage brain: social reorientation and the adolescent brain—the role of gonadal hormones in the male Syrian hamster. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22:128–33 [Google Scholar]
  43. Eckel LA. 2004. Estradiol: a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size. Physiol. Behav. 82:35–41 [Google Scholar]
  44. Edler C, Lipson SF, Keel PK. 2007. Ovarian hormones and binge eating in bulimia nervosa. Psychol. Med. 37:131–41 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fairburn CG, Beglin SJ. 1994. Assessment of eating disorders: interview or self-report questionnaire?. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 16:363–70 [Google Scholar]
  46. Fairweather-Schmidt AK, Wade TD. 2015. Changes in genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating between early and late adolescence: a longitudinal twin study. Psychol. Med. 45:3249–58 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ferreira JE, de Souza PRB, da Costa RS, Sichieri R, da Veiga GV. 2013. Disordered eating behaviors in adolescents and adults living in the same household in metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Psychiatry Res 210:612–17 [Google Scholar]
  48. Ferreiro F, Seoane G, Senra C. 2011. Gender-related risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study. J. Youth Adolesc. 41:607–22 [Google Scholar]
  49. Field AE, Camargo CA, Taylor CB, Berkey CS, Frazier AL. et al. 1999. Overweight, weight concerns, and bulimic behaviors among girls and boys. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 38:754–60 [Google Scholar]
  50. Field AE, Colditz GA, Peterson KE. 1997. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in concern with weight and in bulimic behaviors among adolescents. Obes. Res. 5:447–54 [Google Scholar]
  51. Field EF, Whishaw IQ, Forgie ML, Pellis SM. 2004. Neonatal and pubertal, but not adult, ovarian steroids are necessary for the development of female-typical patterns of dodging to protect a food item. Behav. Neurosci. 118:1293–304 [Google Scholar]
  52. Flament MF, Bucholz A, Henderson K, Obeid N, Maras D. et al. 2015. Comparative distribution and validity of DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnoses of eating disorders in adolescences from the community. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 23:100–10 [Google Scholar]
  53. Forney KJ, Holland LA, Joiner TE, Keel PK. 2015. Determining empirical thresholds for definitely large amounts of food for defining binge eating episodes. Eat. Disord. 23:15–30 [Google Scholar]
  54. Forrester-Knauss C, Stutz EZ. 2012. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?. BMC Public Health 12:809 [Google Scholar]
  55. Freund N, Thompson BS, Norman KJ, Einhorn P, Andersen SL. 2015. Developmental emergence of obsessive-compulsive phenotype and binge behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology 232:3173–81 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gadducci A, Gargini A, Palla E, Fanucchi A, Genazzani AR. 2005. Polycystic ovary syndrome and gynecological cancers: Is there a link?. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 20:200–8 [Google Scholar]
  57. Gladis MM, Walsh BT. 1987. Premenstrual exacerbation of binge eating in bulimia. Am. J. Psychiatry 144:1592–95 [Google Scholar]
  58. Goldschmidt AB, Loth KA, MacLehose RF, Pisetsky EM, Berge JM, Neumark-Sztainer D. 2015. Overeating with and without loss of control: associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 48:1150–57 [Google Scholar]
  59. Grucza RA, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. 2007. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in a community sample. Compr. Psychiatry 48:124–31 [Google Scholar]
  60. Haines J, Kleinman KP, Rifas-Shiman SL, Field AE, Austin B. 2010. Examination of shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating among adolescents. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 164:336–43 [Google Scholar]
  61. Haines J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Eisenberg ME, Hannan PJ. 2006. Weight teasing and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents: longitudinal findings from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Pediatrics 117:e209–15 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hammerle F, Huss M, Ernst V, Burger A. 2016. Thinking dimensional: prevalence of DSM-5 early adolescence full syndrome, partial and subthreshold eating disorders in a cross-sectional survey in German schools. BMJ Open 6:e010843 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hardaway J. 2016. Nociceptin receptor antagonist SB 612111 decreases high fat diet binge eating. Behav. Brain Res. 307:25–34 [Google Scholar]
  64. Harden KP, Mendle J, Kretsch N. 2012. Environmental and genetic pathways between early pubertal timing and dieting in adolescence: distinguishing between objective and subjective timing. Psychol. Med. 42:183–93 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hay P. 1998. The epidemiology of eating disorder behaviors: an Australian community-based survey. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 23:371–82 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hay PJ, Mond J, Buttner P, Darby A. 2008. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia. PLOS ONE 3:e1541 [Google Scholar]
  67. Heil S. 1999. Activational and organizational actions of gonadal hormones and the sex-specific effects of prolactin on food intake by rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 35:61–67 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hildebrandt BA, Racine SA, Keel PK, Burt SA, Neale MC. et al. 2015. The effects of ovarian hormones and emotional eating on changes in weight preoccupation across the menstrual cycle. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 48:477–86 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hildebrandt T, Alfano L, Tricamo M, Pfaff DW. 2010. Conceptualizing the role of estrogens and serotonin in the development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa. Clin. Psychol. Rev 30:655–68 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG, Kessler RC. 2007. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol. Psychiatry 61:348–58 [Google Scholar]
  71. Inst. Med. Forum Neurosci. Nerv. Syst. Disord. 2011. Sex Differences and Implications for Translational Neuroscience Research: Workshop Summary Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  72. Kemnitz JW, Gibber JR, Lindsay KA, Eisele SG. 1989. Effects of ovarian hormones on eating behaviors, body weight, and glucoregulation in rhesus monkeys. Horm. Behav. 23:235–50 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kendler KS, MacLean C, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. 1991. The genetic epidemiology of bulimia nervosa. Am. J. Psychiatry 148:1627–35 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kercmar J, Snoj T, Tobet SA, Majdic G. 2014. Gonadectomy prior to puberty decreases normal parental behavior in adult mice. Horm. Behav. 66:667–73 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Chiu WT, Deitz AC, Hudson JI. et al. 2013. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Biol. Psychiatry 73:9904–14 [Google Scholar]
  76. Kjelsås EB, Bjørnstrøm C, Götestam KG. 2004. Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14–15 years). Eat. Behav. 5:13–25 [Google Scholar]
  77. Klump KL. 2013. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies. Horm. Behav. 64:399–410 [Google Scholar]
  78. Klump KL, Burt SA, McGue M, Iacono WG. 2007a. Changes in genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating across adolescence: a longitudinal twin study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64:1409–15 [Google Scholar]
  79. Klump KL, Burt SA, McGue M, Iacono WG, Wade TM. 2010a. Age differences in genetic and environmental influences on weight and shape concerns. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 43:679–88 [Google Scholar]
  80. Klump KL, Culbert KM, Edler C, Keel PK. 2008. Ovarian hormones and binge eating: exploring associations in community samples. Psychol. Med. 38:1749–57 [Google Scholar]
  81. Klump KL, Culbert KM, Slane JD, Burt SA, Sisk CL, Nigg JT. 2012. The effects of puberty on genetic risk for disordered eating: evidence for sex difference. Psychol. Med. 42:627–38 [Google Scholar]
  82. Klump KL, Gobrogge KL, Perkins P, Thorne D, Sisk CL, Breedlove SM. 2006. Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating. Psychol. Med. 36:539–46 [Google Scholar]
  83. Klump KL, Hildebrandt BA, O'Connor SA, Keel PK, Neale MC. et al. 2015. Changes in genetic risk for emotional eating across the menstrual cycle: a longitudinal study. Psychol. Med. 45:3227–37 [Google Scholar]
  84. Klump KL, Keel PK, Burt SA, Racine SE, Neale MC. et al. 2013a. Ovarian hormones and emotional eating associations across the menstrual cycle: an examination of the potential moderating effects of body mass index and dietary restraint. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 46:256–63 [Google Scholar]
  85. Klump KL, Keel PK, Racine SE, Burt SA, Neale M. et al. 2013b. The interactive effects of estrogen and progesterone on changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:131–37 [Google Scholar]
  86. Klump KL, Keel PK, Sisk CL, Burt SA. 2010b. Preliminary evidence that estradiol moderates genetic influences on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors during puberty. Psychol. Med. 40:1745–53 [Google Scholar]
  87. Klump KL, McGue M, Iacono WG. 2000. Age differences in genetic and environmental influences on eating attitudes and behaviors in female adolescent twins. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 109:239–51 [Google Scholar]
  88. Klump KL, McGue M, Iacono WG. 2003. Differential heritability of eating attitudes and behaviors in prepubertal versus pubertal twins. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 33:287–92 [Google Scholar]
  89. Klump KL, O'Connor SA, Hildebrandt BA, Keel PK, Neale MC. et al. 2016. Differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in women. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 4:5895–908 [Google Scholar]
  90. Klump KL, Perkins P, Burt SA, McGue M, Iacono WG. 2007b. Puberty moderates genetic influences on disordered eating. Psychol. Med. 37:627–34 [Google Scholar]
  91. Klump KL, Racine SE, Hildebrandt B, Burt SA, Neale M. et al. 2014. Ovarian hormone influences on dysregulated eating: a comparison of associations in women with versus without binge episodes. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 2:4545–59 [Google Scholar]
  92. Klump KL, Racine SE, Hildebrandt B, Sisk CL. 2013c. Sex differences in binge eating patterns in male and female rats. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 46:729–36 [Google Scholar]
  93. Klump KL, Suisman JL, Culbert KM, Kashy DA, Keel PK, Sisk CL. 2011a. The effects of ovariectomy on binge eating proneness in adult female rats. Horm. Behav. 59:585–93 [Google Scholar]
  94. Klump KL, Suisman JL, Culbert KM, Kashy DA, Sisk CL. 2011b. Binge eating proneness emerges during puberty in female rats: a longitudinal study. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 120:948–55 [Google Scholar]
  95. Klump KL, Wonderlich SW, LeHoux P, Lilenfeld LRR, Bulik CM. 2002. Does environment matter? A review of nonshared environment and eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 31:118–35 [Google Scholar]
  96. Kothari RG, Gafton J, Treasure J, Micali N. 2014. 2D:4D ratio in children at familial high-risk for eating disorders: the role of prenatal testosterone exposure. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:176–82 [Google Scholar]
  97. Leibowitz SF, Lucas DJ, Leibowitz KL, Jhanwar YS. 1991. Developmental patterns of macronutrient intake in female and male rats from weaning to maturity. Physiol. Behav. 50:1167–74 [Google Scholar]
  98. Lester NA, Keel PK, Lipson SF. 2003. Symptom fluctuation in bulimia nervosa: relation to menstrual-cycle phase and cortisol levels. Psychol. Med. 33:51–60 [Google Scholar]
  99. Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR, Moerk KC, Striegel-Moore RH. 2002. Gender differences in eating disorder symptoms in young adults. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 32:426–40 [Google Scholar]
  100. Lydecker J. 2012. Associations between co-twin sex and eating disorders in opposite sex twin pairs: evaluations in North American, Norwegian, and Swedish samples. J. Psychosom. Res. 72:73–77 [Google Scholar]
  101. Madrid JA, Lopez-Bote C, Martin E. 1993. Effect of neonatal androgenization on the circadian rhythm of feeding behavior in rats. Physiol. Behav. 53:329–35 [Google Scholar]
  102. Malas M, Dogan S, Evcil EH, Desdicioglu K. 2006. Fetal development of the hands, digits, and digit ratios (2D:4D). Early Hum. Dev. 82:469–75 [Google Scholar]
  103. Manning JT, Scutt D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. 1998. The ratio of the 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and oestrogen. Hum. Reprod. 13:3000–4 [Google Scholar]
  104. Marrone BL, Roy EJ, Wade GN. 1975. Progesterone stimulates running wheel activity in adrenalectomized-ovariectomized rats. Horm. Behav. 6:231–36 [Google Scholar]
  105. McBride O, McManus S, Thompson J, Palmer RL, Brugha T. 2013. Profiling disordered eating and body mass index (BMI) in the English population. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 48:783–93 [Google Scholar]
  106. McFadden D. 1993. A masculinizing effect on the auditory systems of human females having male co-twins. PNAS 90:11900–4 [Google Scholar]
  107. Micali N, Field AE, Treasure JL, Evans DM. 2015. Are obesity risk genes associated with binge eating in adolescence?. Obesity 23:1729–36 [Google Scholar]
  108. Miller EM. 1994. Prenatal sex hormone transfer: a reason to study opposite-sex twins. Pers. Individ. Differ. 17:511–29 [Google Scholar]
  109. Mitchell JE, Crow SC. 2010. Medical Comorbidities of Eating Disorders New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  110. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. 2004. Aromatase inhibition reduces the dose of gonadotropin required for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. 11:406–15 [Google Scholar]
  111. Mond J, Hall A, Bentley C, Harrison C, Grawick-Sarll K, Lewis V. 2014. Eating-disordered behavior in adolescent boys: Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire norms. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 47:335–41 [Google Scholar]
  112. Mond J, Hay PJ. 2007. Functional impairment associated with bulimic behaviors in a community sample of men and women. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 40:391–98 [Google Scholar]
  113. Monteleone P. 2001. Plasma levels of neuroactive steroids are increased in untreated women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Psychosom. Med. 63:62–68 [Google Scholar]
  114. Morgan JF, McCluskey SE, Brunton JN, Lacey HJ. 2002. Polycystic ovarian morphology and bulimia nervosa. Fertil. Steril. 77:928–31 [Google Scholar]
  115. Muise AMS, Stein DG, Arbess G. 2003. Eating disorders in adolescent boys: a review of the adolescent and young adult literature. J. Adolesc. Health 33:427–35 [Google Scholar]
  116. Murray SMT, Tulloch AJ, Chen EY, Avena NM. 2015. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating. CNS Spectr 20:530–36 [Google Scholar]
  117. Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Kawakami N, Shimizu H. 2000. Relationships between types of fat consumed and serum estrogen and androgen concentrations in Japanese men. Nutr. Cancer 38:163–67 [Google Scholar]
  118. Nakai YN, Noma S, Nin K, Teramukai S, Wonderlich SA. 2015. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools. Psychiatry Res 230:722–24 [Google Scholar]
  119. Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Larson NI, Eisenberg ME, Loth K. 2011. Dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: findings from a 10-year longitudinal study. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 111:1004–11 [Google Scholar]
  120. Ohzeki T, Otahara H, Hanaki K, Motozumi H, Shiraki K. 1993. Eating Attitudes Test in boys and girls aged 6–18 years: decrease in concerns with eating in boys and the increase in girls with their ages. Psychopathology 26:117–21 [Google Scholar]
  121. Oinonen KA, Bird JL. 2012. Age at menarche and digit ratio (2D:4D): relationships with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptoms in women. Body Image 9:302–6 [Google Scholar]
  122. Okten A, Kalyoncu M, Yari N. 2002. The ratio of second- and fourth-digit lengths and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Early Hum. Dev. 70:47–54 [Google Scholar]
  123. Ostlund H, Keller E, Hurd YL. 2003. Estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1007:54–63 [Google Scholar]
  124. Oswald KD, Murdaugh DL, King VL, Boggiano MM. 2011. Motivation for palatable food despite consequences in an animal model of binge eating. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 44:203–11 [Google Scholar]
  125. Phoenix CH, Goy RW, Gerall AA, Young WC. 1959. Organizing action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig. Endocrinology 65:369–82 [Google Scholar]
  126. Preti A, De Girolamo G, Vilagut G, Alonso J, De Graaf R. et al. 2009. The epidemiology of eating disorders in six European countries: results of the ESEMeD-WMH project. J. Psychiatr. Res. 43:1125–32 [Google Scholar]
  127. Price WA, Torem MS, DiMarzio LR. 1987. Premenstrual exacerbation of bulimia. Psychosomatics 28:378–79 [Google Scholar]
  128. Qian JH, Wan Q, Li Y, Wu T, Ren M, Yu ZD. 2013. Prevalence of eating disorders in the general population: a systematic review. Shanghai Arch. Psychiatry 25:212–23 [Google Scholar]
  129. Quinton SJ, Smith AR, Joiner T. 2011. The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) and eating disorder diagnosis in women. Pers. Individ. Differ. 51:402–5 [Google Scholar]
  130. Racine SE, Culbert KM, Keel PK, Sisk CL, Burt SA, Klump KL. 2012. Differential associations between ovarian hormones and disordered eating symptoms across the menstrual cycle in women. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 45:333–44 [Google Scholar]
  131. Raevuori A. 2008. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa in same-sex and opposite-sex twins: lack of association with twin type in a nationwide study of Finnish twins. Am. J. Psychiatry 165:1604–10 [Google Scholar]
  132. Raevuori A, Keski-Rahkonen A, Hoek HW. 2014a. A review of eating disorders in males. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 27:426–30 [Google Scholar]
  133. Raevuori A, Linna MS, Keski-Rahkonen A. 2014b. Prenatal and perinatal factors in eating disorders: a descriptive review. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 47:676–85 [Google Scholar]
  134. Rand CSW, Kuldau JM. 1990. The epidemiology of obesity and self-defined weight problem in the general population: gender, race, age, and social class. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 9:329–43 [Google Scholar]
  135. Raphael FJ, Rodin DA, Peattie A, Bano G, Kent A. et al. 1995. Ovarian morphology and insulin sensitivity in women with bulimia nervosa. Clin. Neuroendocrinol. 43:451–55 [Google Scholar]
  136. Reagan PH, Hersch J. 2005. Influence of race, gender, and socioeconomic status on binge eating frequency in a population-based sample. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 38:252–56 [Google Scholar]
  137. Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Bulik CM, Kendler K, Roysamb E, Maes HHM, Tambs K. 2003. Gender differences in binge-eating: a population-based twin study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 108:196–202 [Google Scholar]
  138. Reichelt ACA, Abbott KN, Westbrook RF, Morris MJ. 2016. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats. Physiol. Behav. 157:13–19 [Google Scholar]
  139. Ross HE, Ivis F. 1999. Binge eating and substance use among male and female adolescents. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 26:245–60 [Google Scholar]
  140. Rowland NE. 2012. Animal models of overeating. Psychiatr. Disord. 829:367–75 [Google Scholar]
  141. Ryan BC, Vandenbergh JG. 2002. Intrauterine position effects. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 26:665–78 [Google Scholar]
  142. Schulz KM, Richardson HM, Zehr JL, Osetek AJ, Menard TA, Sisk CL. 2004. Gonadal hormones masculinize and defeminize reproductive behaviors during puberty in the male Syrian hamster. Horm. Behav. 45:242–49 [Google Scholar]
  143. Schulz KM, Sisk CL. 2006. Pubertal hormones, the adolescent brain, and the maturation of social behaviors: lessons from the Syrian hamster. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 254–255:120–26 [Google Scholar]
  144. Schulz KM, Sisk CL. 2016. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 70:148–58 [Google Scholar]
  145. Schulz KM, Zehr JL, Salas-Ramirez KY, Sisk CL. 2009. Testosterone programs adult social behavior before and during, but not after, adolescence. Endocrinology 150:3690–98 [Google Scholar]
  146. Slof-Op't MC, Bartels M, van Furth EF, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Meulenbelt I. et al. 2008. Genetic influences on disordered eating behavior are largely independent of body mass index. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 117:348–56 [Google Scholar]
  147. Slutske WS, Bascom EN, Meier MH, Medland SE, Martin NG. 2011. Sensation seeking in females from opposite- versus same-sex twin pairs: hormone transfer or sibling imitation. Behav. Genet. 41:533–42 [Google Scholar]
  148. Smink FRE, van Hoeken D, Oldehinkel AJ, Hoek HW. 2014. Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 47:670–79 [Google Scholar]
  149. Smith ARH, Hawkeswood SE, Joiner TE. 2010. The measure of a man: associations between digit ratios and disordered eating in males. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 43:543–48 [Google Scholar]
  150. Sonneville KR, Horton NJ, Micali N, Crosby RD, Swanson SA. et al. 2013. Longitudinal associations between binge eating and overeating and adverse outcomes among adolescents and young adults: Does loss of control matter. JAMA Pediatr 167:149–55 [Google Scholar]
  151. Stice E, Cameron RP, Killen JD, Hayward C, Taylor CB. 1999. Naturalistic weight-reduction efforts prospectively predict growth in relative weight and onset of obesity among female adolescents. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 6:967–74 [Google Scholar]
  152. Stice E, Presnell K, Spangler D. 2002. Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: a 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychol 21:131–38 [Google Scholar]
  153. Striegel RH, Bedrosian R, Wang C, Schwartz S. 2012. Why men should be included in research on binge eating: results from a comparison of psychosocial impairment in men and women. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 45:233–40 [Google Scholar]
  154. Striegel-Moore RH, Rosselli F, Perrin N, DeBar L, Wilson GT. et al. 2009. Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 42:471–74 [Google Scholar]
  155. Sundblad CB, Bergman L, Eriksson E. 1994. High levels of free testosterone in women with bulimia nervosa. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 90:397–98 [Google Scholar]
  156. Swanson SA, Crow SC, le Grange D, Swendsen J, Merikangas KR. 2011. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents. JAMA Psychiatry 68:714–23 [Google Scholar]
  157. Sweeting H. 2015. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media. Int. J. Men's Health 14:2 https://doi.org/10.3149/jmh.1402.86 [Google Scholar]
  158. Swithers SE, McCurley M, Hamilton E, Doerflinger A. 2008. Influence of ovarian hormones on development of ingestive responding to alterations in fatty acid oxidation in female rats. Horm. Behav. 54:471–77 [Google Scholar]
  159. Tamimi R, Mucci LA, Spanos E, Lagiou A, Benetou V, Trichopoulos D. 2001. Testosterone and oestradiol in relation to tobacco smoking, body mass index, energy consumption and nutrient intake among adult men. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 10:275–80 [Google Scholar]
  160. Tapp AL, Maybery MT, Whitehouse AJ. 2011. Evaluating the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis: a review of the empirical evidence. Horm. Behav. 60:713–22 [Google Scholar]
  161. Thase ME. 2006. What is the investigator allegiance effect and what should we do about it?. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 6:113–15 [Google Scholar]
  162. Thompson JK, Stice E. 2001. Thin-ideal internalization: mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-image disturbance and eating pathology. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 10:181–83 [Google Scholar]
  163. Wade GN. 1972. Gonadal hormones and behavioral regulation of body weight. Physiol. Behav. 8:523–34 [Google Scholar]
  164. Wade GN. 1976. Sex Hormones, Regulatory Behaviors, and Body Weight New York: Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  165. Wade GN, Zucker I. 1969a. Hormonal and developmental influences on rat saccharin preferences. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 69:291–300 [Google Scholar]
  166. Wade GN, Zucker I. 1969b. Taste preferences of female rats: modification by neonatal hormones, food deprivation, and prior experience. Physiol. Behav. 4:935–43 [Google Scholar]
  167. Wade TD, Hansell NK, Crosby RD, Bryant-Waugh R, Treasure JL. et al. 2013. A study of changes in genetic and environmental influences on weight and shape concern across adolescence. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:119–30 [Google Scholar]
  168. Wallen K. 2009. Does finger fat produce sex differences in second to fourth digit ratios?. Endocrinology 150:4819–22 [Google Scholar]
  169. Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR. 1998. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology Philadelphia: Saunders, 9th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  170. Yu Z, Geary N, Corwin RL. 2008. Ovarian hormones inhibit fat intake under binge-type conditions in ovariectomized rats. Physiol. Behav. 95:501–7 [Google Scholar]
  171. Zheng JL, Cohn MJ. 2011. Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios. PNAS 108:16289–94 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error