1932

Abstract

Depression is a significant public health problem, but its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Such incomplete understanding likely arises from the fact that depression encompasses a heterogeneous set of disorders. To overcome these limitations, renewed interest in intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes) has resurfaced, and anhedonia has emerged as one of the most promising endophenotypes of depression. Here, a heuristic model is presented postulating that anhedonia arises from dysfunctional interactions between stress and brain reward systems. To this end, we review and integrate three bodies of independent literature investigating the role of () anhedonia, () dopamine, and () stress in depression. In a fourth section, we summarize animal data indicating that stress negatively affects mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways critically implicated in incentive motivation and reinforcement learning. In the last section, we provide a synthesis of these four literatures, present initial evidence consistent with our model, and discuss directions for future research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185606
2014-03-28
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/10/1/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185606.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185606&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abercrombie ED, Keefe KA, DiFrischia DS, Zigmond MJ. 1989. Differential effect of stress on in vivo dopamine release in striatum, nucleus accumbens, and medial frontal cortex. J. Neurochem. 52:1655–58 [Google Scholar]
  2. Al'Absi M, Nakajima M, Hooker S, Wittmers L, Cragin T. 2012. Exposure to acute stress is associated with attenuated sweet taste. Psychophysiology 49:96–103 [Google Scholar]
  3. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. (APA) 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Press, 4th. ed., text rev. [Google Scholar]
  4. Amital D, Fostick L, Silberman A, Beckman M, Spivak B. 2008. Serious life events among resistant and non-resistant MDD patients. J. Affect. Disord. 110:260–64 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bagot RC, Meaney MJ. 2010. Epigenetics and the biological basis of gene×environment interactions. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 49:752–71 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bandura A. 1971. The Nature of Reinforcement New York/London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  7. Bekris S, Antoniou K, Daskas S, Papadopoulou-Daifoti Z. 2005. Behavioural and neurochemical effects induced by chronic mild stress applied to two different rat strains. Behav. Brain Res. 161:45–59 [Google Scholar]
  8. Berenbaum H, Connelly J. 1993. The effect of stress on hedonic capacity. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 102:474–81 [Google Scholar]
  9. Berenbaum H, Oltmanns TF. 1992. Emotional experience and expression in schizophrenia and depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 101:37–44 [Google Scholar]
  10. Berghorst L, Pizzagalli DA. 2010. Defining depression endophenotypes. Next Generation Antidepressants. Moving Beyond Monoamines to Discover Novel and Differentiated Treatment Strategies for Mood Disorders CE Beyer, SA Stahl 70–89 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  11. Berman RM, Narasimhan M, Miller HL, Anand A, Cappiello A. et al. 1999. Transient depressive relapse induced by catecholamine depletion: potential phenotypic vulnerability marker?. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56:395–403 [Google Scholar]
  12. Berman RM, Sanacora G, Anand A, Roach LM, Fasula MK. et al. 2002. Monoamine depletion in unmedicated depressed subjects. Biol. Psychiatry 51:469–73 [Google Scholar]
  13. Berridge KC. 2007. The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 191:391–431 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bewernick BH, Kayser S, Sturm V, Schlaepfer TE. 2012. Long-term effects of nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression: evidence for sustained efficacy. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1975–85 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bogdan R, Pizzagalli DA. 2006. Acute stress reduces reward responsiveness: implications for depression. Biol. Psychiatry 60:1147–54 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bogdan R, Santesso DL, Fagerness J, Perlis RH, Pizzagalli DA. 2011. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) genetic variation and stress interact to influence reward learning. J. Neurosci. 31:13246–54 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bowden C, Cheetham SC, Lowther S, Katona CL, Crompton MR, Horton RW. 1997. Reduced dopamine turnover in the basal ganglia of depressed suicides. Brain Res. 769:135–40 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brake WG, Zhang TY, Diorio J, Meaney MJ, Gratton A. 2004. Influence of early postnatal rearing conditions on mesocorticolimbic dopamine and behavioural responses to psychostimulants and stressors in adult rats. Eur. J. Neurosci. 19:1863–74 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bremner JD, Vythilingam M, Ng CK, Vermetten E, Nazeer A. et al. 2003. Regional brain metabolic correlates of alpha-methylparatyrosine-induced depressive symptoms: implications for the neural circuitry of depression. JAMA 289:3125–34 [Google Scholar]
  20. Brenes JC, Fornaguera J. 2008. Effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation on sucrose consumption and preference: associations with depressive-like behavior and ventral striatum dopamine. Neurosci. Lett. 436:278–82 [Google Scholar]
  21. Brown GW, Harris T. 1978. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  22. Brunswick DJ, Amsterdam JD, Mozley PD, Newberg A. 2003. Greater availability of brain dopamine transporters in major depression shown by [99m Tc]TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging. Am. J. Psychiatry 160:1836–41 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cabib S, Puglisi-Allegra S. 2012. The mesoaccumbens dopamine in coping with stress. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36:79–89 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cabib S, Ventura R, Puglisi-Allegra S. 2002. Opposite imbalances between mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine responses to stress by the same genotype depending on living conditions. Behav. Brain Res. 129:179–85 [Google Scholar]
  25. Chrapusta SJ, Wyatt RJ, Masserano JM. 1997. Effects of single and repeated footshock on dopamine release and metabolism in the brains of Fischer rats. J. Neurochem. 68:2024–31 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cuadra G, Zurita A, Lacerra C, Molina V. 1999. Chronic stress sensitizes frontal cortex dopamine release in response to a subsequent novel stressor: reversal by naloxone. Brain Res. Bull. 48:303–8 [Google Scholar]
  27. Daley SE, Hammen C, Rao U. 2000. Predictors of first onset and recurrence of major depression in young women during the 5 years following high school graduation. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 109:525–33 [Google Scholar]
  28. Del Arco A, Mora F. 2008. Prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbens interaction: in vivo modulation by dopamine and glutamate in the prefrontal cortex. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 90:226–35 [Google Scholar]
  29. Delgado MR. 2007. Reward-related responses in the human striatum. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1104:70–88 [Google Scholar]
  30. Di Chiara G, Loddo P, Tanda G. 1999. Reciprocal changes in prefrontal and limbic dopamine responsiveness to aversive and rewarding stimuli after chronic mild stress: implications for the psychobiology of depression. Biol. Psychiatry 46:1624–33 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dichter GS, Felder JN, Petty C, Bizzell J, Ernst M, Smoski MJ. 2009. The effects of psychotherapy on neural responses to rewards in major depression. Biol. Psychiatry 66:886–97 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dichter GS, Tomarken AJ, Shelton RC, Sutton SK. 2004. Early- and late-onset startle modulation in unipolar depression. Psychophysiology 41:433–40 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dickerson SS, Kemeny ME. 2004. Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychol. Bull. 130:355–91 [Google Scholar]
  34. Dillon DG, Holmes AJ, Birk JL, Brooks N, Lyons-Ruth K, Pizzagalli DA. 2009. Childhood adversity is associated with left basal ganglia dysfunction during reward anticipation in adulthood. Biol. Psychiatry 66:206–13 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dillon DG, Holmes AJ, Jahn AL, Bogdan R, Wald LL, Pizzagalli DA. 2008. Dissociation of neural regions associated with anticipatory versus consummatory phases of incentive processing. Psychophysiology 45:36–49 [Google Scholar]
  36. Diorio D, Viau V, Meaney MJ. 1993. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex (cingulate gyrus) in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. J. Neurosci. 13:3839–47 [Google Scholar]
  37. Dobson KS, Shaw BF. 1987. Specificity and stability of self-referent encoding in clinical depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 96:34–40 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dunlop BW, Nemeroff CB. 2007. The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64:327–37 [Google Scholar]
  39. Ebert D, Feistel H, Loew T, Pirner A. 1996. Dopamine and depression-striatal dopamine D2 receptor SPECT before and after antidepressant therapy. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 126:91–94 [Google Scholar]
  40. Ekers D, Richards D, Gilbody S. 2008. A meta-analysis of randomized trials of behavioural treatment of depression. Psychol. Med. 38:611–23 [Google Scholar]
  41. Elizalde N, Gil-Bea FJ, Ramirez MJ, Aisa B, Lasheras B. et al. 2008. Long-lasting behavioral effects and recognition memory deficit induced by chronic mild stress in mice: effect of antidepressant treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 199:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  42. Elliott R, Sahakian BJ, Michael A, Paykel ES, Dolan RJ. 1998. Abnormal neural response to feedback on planning and guessing tasks in patients with unipolar depression. Psychol. Med. 28:559–71 [Google Scholar]
  43. Epstein J, Pan H, Kocsis JH, Yang Y, Butler T. et al. 2006. Lack of ventral striatal response to positive stimuli in depressed versus normal subjects. Am. J. Psychiatry 163:1784–90 [Google Scholar]
  44. Forbes EE, Christopher May J, Siegle GJ, Ladouceur CD, Ryan ND. et al. 2006. Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: an fMRI study. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47:1031–40 [Google Scholar]
  45. Forbes EE, Hariri AR, Martin SL, Silk JS, Moyles DL. et al. 2009. Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 166:64–73 [Google Scholar]
  46. Forbes EE, Shaw DS, Dahl RE. 2007. Alterations in reward-related decision making in boys with recent and future depression. Biol. Psychiatry 61:633–39 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gambarana C, Masi F, Tagliamonte A, Scheggi S, Ghiglieri O, De Montis MG. 1999. A chronic stress that impairs reactivity in rats also decreases dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens: a microdialysis study. J. Neurochem. 72:2039–46 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gladstone G, Parker G, Wilhelm K, Mitchell P, Austin MP. 1999. Characteristics of depressed patients who report childhood sexual abuse. Am. J. Psychiatry 156:431–37 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gold PW, Chrousos GP. 1999. The endocrinology of melancholic and atypical depression: relation to neurocircuitry and somatic consequences. Proc. Assoc. Am. Physicians 111:22–34 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gollan JK, Pane HT, McCloskey MS, Coccaro EF. 2008. Identifying differences in biased affective information processing in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 159:18–24 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gordon I, Weizman R, Rehavi M. 1996. Modulatory effect of agents active in the presynaptic dopaminergic system on the striatal dopamine transporter. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 298:27–30 [Google Scholar]
  52. Gotlib IH, Hamilton JP, Cooney RE, Singh MK, Henry ML, Joormann J. 2010. Neural processing of reward and loss in girls at risk for major depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 67:380–87 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gotlib IH, Kasch KL, Traill S, Joormann J, Arnow BA, Johnson SL. 2004. Coherence and specificity of information-processing biases in depression and social phobia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 113:386–98 [Google Scholar]
  54. Gotlib IH, McLachlan A, Katz AN. 1988. Biases in visual attention in depressed and nondepressed individuals. Cogn. Emot. 2:185–200 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gottesman II, Gould TD. 2003. The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am. J. Psychiatry 160:636–45 [Google Scholar]
  56. Greden JF. 2001. The burden of disease for treatment-resistant depression. J. Clin. Psychiatry 62:Suppl. 1626–31 [Google Scholar]
  57. Grippo AJ, Cushing BS, Carter CS. 2007. Depression-like behavior and stressor-induced neuroendocrine activation in female prairie voles exposed to chronic social isolation. Psychosom. Med. 69:149–57 [Google Scholar]
  58. Guyer AE, Kaufman J, Hodgdon HB, Masten CL, Jazbec S. et al. 2006. Behavioral alterations in reward system function: the role of childhood maltreatment and psychopathology. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 45:1059–67 [Google Scholar]
  59. Haeffel GJ, Getchell M, Koposov RA, Yrigollen CM, Deyoung CG. et al. 2008. Association between polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene and depression: evidence for a gene-environment interaction in a sample of juvenile detainees. Psychol. Sci. 19:62–69 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hammen C. 2005. Stress and depression. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1:293–319 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hammen C, Henry R, Daley SE. 2000. Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 68:782–87 [Google Scholar]
  62. Haruno M, Kuroda T, Doya K, Toyama K, Kimura M. et al. 2004. A neural correlate of reward-based behavioral learning in caudate nucleus: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of a stochastic decision task. J. Neurosci. 24:1660–65 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hasler G, Drevets WC, Manji HK, Charney DS. 2004. Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1765–81 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hasler G, Fromm S, Carlson PJ, Luckenbaugh DA, Waldeck T. et al. 2008. Neural response to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder in remission and healthy subjects. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 65:521–31 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hawley L, Ho RM, Zuroff D, Blatt S. 2007. Stress reactivity following brief treatment for depression: differential effects of psychotherapy and medication. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 75:244–56 [Google Scholar]
  66. Henriques JB, Glowacki JM, Davidson RJ. 1994. Reward fails to alter response bias in depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 103:460–66 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hopko DR, Armento ME, Cantu MS, Chambers LL, Lejuez CW. 2003. The use of daily diaries to assess the relations among mood state, overt behavior, and reward value of activities. Behav. Res. Ther. 41:1137–48 [Google Scholar]
  68. Horan WP, Brown SA, Blanchard JJ. 2007. Social anhedonia and schizotypy: the contribution of individual differences in affective traits, stress, and coping. Psychiatry Res. 149:147–56 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hornak J, O'Doherty J, Bramham J, Rolls ET, Morris RG. et al. 2004. Reward-related reversal learning after surgical excisions in orbito-frontal or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16:463–78 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hyman SE. 2007. Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V?. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8:725–32 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hyman SE, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ. 2006. Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 29:565–98 [Google Scholar]
  72. Imperato A, Angelucci L, Casolini P, Zocchi A, Puglisi-Allegra S. 1992. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect limbic dopamine release during and following stress. Brain Res. 577:194–99 [Google Scholar]
  73. Isovich E, Mijnster MJ, Flugge G, Fuchs E. 2000. Chronic psychosocial stress reduces the density of dopamine transporters. Eur. J. Neurosci. 12:1071–78 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jiao X, Pare WP, Tejani-Butt S. 2003. Strain differences in the distribution of dopamine transporter sites in rat brain. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 27:913–19 [Google Scholar]
  75. Johnson SL, Joormann J, Gotlib IH. 2007. Does processing of emotional stimuli predict symptomatic improvement and diagnostic recovery from major depression?. Emotion 7:201–6 [Google Scholar]
  76. Joormann J, Gotlib IH. 2006. Is this happiness I see? Biases in the identification of emotional facial expressions in depression and social phobia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 115:705–14 [Google Scholar]
  77. Joormann J, Gotlib IH. 2007. Selective attention to emotional faces following recovery from depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 116:80–85 [Google Scholar]
  78. Joormann J, Talbot L, Gotlib IH. 2007. Biased processing of emotional information in girls at risk for depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 116:135–43 [Google Scholar]
  79. Katz RJ. 1982. Animal model of depression: pharmacological sensitivity of a hedonic deficit. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 16:965–68 [Google Scholar]
  80. Keedwell PA, Andrew C, Williams SC, Brammer MJ, Phillips ML. 2005. The neural correlates of anhedonia in major depressive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 58:843–53 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kendler KS, Hettema JM, Butera F, Gardner CO, Prescott CA. 2003. Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 60:789–96 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gardner CO. 2000. Stressful life events and previous episodes in the etiology of major depression in women: an evaluation of the “kindling” hypothesis. Am. J. Psychiatry 157:1243–51 [Google Scholar]
  83. King D, Zigmond MJ, Finlay JM. 1997. Effects of dopamine depletion in the medial prefrontal cortex on the stress-induced increase in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. Neuroscience 77:141–53 [Google Scholar]
  84. Kleen JK, Sitomer MT, Killeen PR, Conrad CD. 2006. Chronic stress impairs spatial memory and motivation for reward without disrupting motor ability and motivation to explore. Behav. Neurosci. 120:842–51 [Google Scholar]
  85. Klimek V, Schenck JE, Han H, Stockmeier CA, Ordway GA. 2002. Dopaminergic abnormalities in amygdaloid nuclei in major depression: a postmortem study. Biol. Psychiatry 52:740–48 [Google Scholar]
  86. Krishnan V, Han MH, Graham DL, Berton O, Renthal W. et al. 2007. Molecular adaptations underlying susceptibility and resistance to social defeat in brain reward regions. Cell 131:391–404 [Google Scholar]
  87. Kumar P, Waiter G, Ahearn T, Milders M, Reid I, Steele JD. 2008. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression. Brain 131:2084–93 [Google Scholar]
  88. Kunisato Y, Okamoto Y, Ueda K, Onoda K, Okada G. et al. 2012. Effects of depression on reward-based decision making and variability of action in probabilistic learning. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 43:1088–94 [Google Scholar]
  89. Labonté B, Suderman M, Maussion G, Navaro L, Yerko V. et al. 2012. Genome-wide epigenetic regulation by early-life trauma. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 69:722–31 [Google Scholar]
  90. Lambert G, Johansson M, Agren H, Friberg P. 2000. Reduced brain norepinephrine and dopamine release in treatment-refractory depressive illness: evidence in support of the catecholamine hypothesis of mood disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57:787–93 [Google Scholar]
  91. Leppanen JM, Milders M, Bell JS, Terriere E, Hietanen JK. 2004. Depression biases the recognition of emotionally neutral faces. Psychiatry Res. 128:123–33 [Google Scholar]
  92. Leskela U, Rytsala H, Komulainen E, Melartin T, Sokero P. et al. 2006. The influence of adversity and perceived social support on the outcome of major depressive disorder in subjects with different levels of depressive symptoms. Psychol. Med. 36:779–88 [Google Scholar]
  93. Lethbridge R, Allen NB. 2008. Mood induced cognitive and emotional reactivity, life stress, and the prediction of depressive relapse. Behav. Res. Ther. 46:1142–50 [Google Scholar]
  94. Lucas LR, Celen Z, Tamashiro KL, Blanchard RJ, Blanchard DC. et al. 2004. Repeated exposure to social stress has long-term effects on indirect markers of dopaminergic activity in brain regions associated with motivated behavior. Neuroscience 124:449–57 [Google Scholar]
  95. Lucas LR, Wang CJ, McCall TJ, McEwen BS. 2007. Effects of immobilization stress on neurochemical markers in the motivational system of the male rat. Brain Res. 1155:108–15 [Google Scholar]
  96. Lumley MN, Harkness KL. 2007. Specificity in the relations among childhood adversity, early maladaptive schemas, and symptom profiles in adolescent depression. Cogn. Ther. Res. 31:639–57 [Google Scholar]
  97. Lutz PE, Turecki G. 2013. DNA methylation and childhood maltreatment: from animal models to human studies. Neuroscience In press [Google Scholar]
  98. Maier SF, Amat J, Baratta MV, Paul E, Watkins LR. 2006. Behavioral control, the medial prefrontal cortex, and resilience. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 8:397–406 [Google Scholar]
  99. Mangiavacchi S, Masi F, Scheggi S, Leggio B, De Montis MG, Gambarana C. 2001. Long-term behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic stress exposure in rats. J. Neurochem. 79:1113–21 [Google Scholar]
  100. Masi F, Scheggi S, Mangiavacchi S, Tolu P, Tagliamonte A. et al. 2001. Dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens shell is related to the acquisition and the retention of a motivated appetitive behavior in rats. Brain Res. 903:102–9 [Google Scholar]
  101. Matthews K, Robbins TW. 2003. Early experience as a determinant of adult behavioural responses to reward: the effects of repeated maternal separation in the rat. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 27:45–55 [Google Scholar]
  102. Mazure CM. 1998. Life stressors as risk factors in depression. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 5:291–313 [Google Scholar]
  103. McCabe C, Cowen PJ, Harmer CJ. 2009. Neural representation of reward in recovered depressed patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 205:667–77 [Google Scholar]
  104. McCabe C, Woffindale C, Harmer CJ, Cowen PJ. 2012. Neural processing of reward and punishment in young people at increased familial risk of depression. Biol. Psychiatry 72:588–94 [Google Scholar]
  105. McCabe SB, Gotlib IH, Martin RA. 2000. Cognitive vulnerability for depression: deployment of attention as a function of history of depression and current mood state. Cogn. Ther. Res. 24:427–44 [Google Scholar]
  106. McFarland BR, Klein DN. 2009. Emotional reactivity in depression: diminished responsiveness to anticipated reward but not to anticipated punishment or to nonreward or avoidance. Depress. Anxiety 26:117–22 [Google Scholar]
  107. McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D'Alessio AC, Dymos S, Labonté B. et al. 2009. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associated with childhood abuse. Nat. Neurosci. 12:342–46 [Google Scholar]
  108. McMakin DL, Olino TM, Porta G, Dietz LJ, Emslie G. et al. 2012. Anhedonia predicts poorer recovery among youth with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment-resistant depression. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 51:404–11 [Google Scholar]
  109. McTavish SF, Mannie ZN, Harmer CJ, Cowen PJ. 2005. Lack of effect of tyrosine depletion on mood in recovered depressed women. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:786–91 [Google Scholar]
  110. Meehl PE. 1975. Hedonic capacity: some conjectures. Bull. Menninger Clin. 39:295–307 [Google Scholar]
  111. Miller HL, Delgado PL, Salomon RM, Berman R, Krystal JH. et al. 1996. Clinical and biochemical effects of catecholamine depletion on antidepressant-induced remission of depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53:117–28 [Google Scholar]
  112. Mintz M, Ruedi-Bettschen D, Feldon J, Pryce CR. 2005. Early social and physical deprivation leads to reduced social motivation in adulthood in Wistar rats. Behav. Brain Res. 156:311–20 [Google Scholar]
  113. Miranda R, Mennin DS. 2007. Depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and certainty in pessimistic predictions about the future. Cogn. Ther. Res. 31:71–82 [Google Scholar]
  114. Mitani H, Shirayama Y, Yamada T, Kawahara R. 2006. Plasma levels of homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol, and serotonin turnover in depressed patients. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 30:531–34 [Google Scholar]
  115. Monk CS, Klein RG, Telzer EH, Schroth EA, Mannuzza S. et al. 2008. Amygdala and nucleus accumbens activation to emotional facial expressions in children and adolescents at risk for major depression. Am. J. Psychiatry 165:90–98 [Google Scholar]
  116. Montgomery AJ, Stokes P, Kitamura Y, Grasby PM. 2007. Extrastriatal D2 and striatal D2 receptors in depressive illness: pilot PET studies using [11C]FLB 457 and [11C]raclopride. J. Affect. Disord. 101:113–22 [Google Scholar]
  117. Moore H, Rose HJ, Grace AA. 2001. Chronic cold stress reduces the spontaneous activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. Neuropsychopharmacology 24:410–19 [Google Scholar]
  118. Moos RH, Cronkite RC. 1999. Symptom-based predictors of a 10-year chronic course of treated depression. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 187:360–68 [Google Scholar]
  119. Moreau JL, Jenck F, Martin JR, Mortas P, Haefely WE. 1992. Antidepressant treatment prevents chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced anhedonia as assessed by ventral tegmentum self-stimulation behavior in rats. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2:43–49 [Google Scholar]
  120. Muris P, van der Heiden S. 2006. Anxiety, depression, and judgments about the probability of future negative and positive events in children. J. Anxiety Disord. 20:252–61 [Google Scholar]
  121. Nanni G, Scheggi S, Leggio B, Grappi S, Masi F. et al. 2003. Acquisition of an appetitive behavior prevents development of stress-induced neurochemical modifications in rat nucleus accumbens. J. Neurosci. Res. 73:573–80 [Google Scholar]
  122. Nelson RE, Craighead WE. 1977. Selective recall of positive and negative feedback, self-control behaviors, and depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 86:379–88 [Google Scholar]
  123. Nikolova Y, Bogdan R, Pizzagalli DA. 2012. Perception of a naturalistic stressor interacts with 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotype and gender to impact reward responsiveness. Neuropsychobiology 65:45–54 [Google Scholar]
  124. O'Doherty J, Dayan P, Schultz J, Deichmann R, Friston K, Dolan RJ. 2004. Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science 304:452–54 [Google Scholar]
  125. O'Doherty JP. 2004. Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14:769–76 [Google Scholar]
  126. Olino TM, McMakin DL, Dahl RE, Ryan ND, Silk JS. et al. 2011. “I won, but I'm not getting my hopes up”: Depression moderates the relationship of outcomes and reward anticipation. Psychiatry Res. 194:393–95 [Google Scholar]
  127. Papp M, Willner P, Muscat R. 1991. An animal model of anhedonia: attenuation of sucrose consumption and place preference conditioning by chronic unpredictable mild stress. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 104:255–59 [Google Scholar]
  128. Pechtel P, Pizzagalli DA. 2011. Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 214:55–70 [Google Scholar]
  129. Pechtel P, Pizzagalli DA. 2013. Disrupted reinforcement learning and maladaptive behavior in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a high-density event-related potential study. JAMA Psychiatry 70:499–507 [Google Scholar]
  130. Pechtel P, Dutra SJ, Goetz EL, Pizzagalli DA. 2013. Blunted reward responsiveness in remitted depression. J. Psychiatr. Res. 47:1864–69 [Google Scholar]
  131. Persad SM, Polivy J. 1993. Differences between depressed and nondepressed individuals in the recognition of and response to facial emotional cues. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 102:358–68 [Google Scholar]
  132. Pfaus JG, Phillips AG. 1991. Role of dopamine in anticipatory and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior in the male rat. Behav. Neurosci. 105:727–43 [Google Scholar]
  133. Pizzagalli DA, Bogdan R, Ratner KG, Jahn AL. 2007. Increased perceived stress is associated with blunted hedonic capacity: potential implications for depression research. Behav. Res. Ther. 45:2742–53 [Google Scholar]
  134. Pizzagalli DA, Evins AE, Schetter EC, Frank MJ, Pajtas PE. et al. 2008a. Single dose of a dopamine agonist impairs reinforcement learning in humans: behavioral evidence from a laboratory-based measure of reward responsiveness. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 196:221–32 [Google Scholar]
  135. Pizzagalli DA, Holmes AJ, Dillon DG, Goetz EL, Birk JL. et al. 2009. Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 166:702–10 [Google Scholar]
  136. Pizzagalli DA, Iosifescu D, Hallett LA, Ratner KG, Fava M. 2008b. Reduced hedonic capacity in major depressive disorder: evidence from a probabilistic reward task. J. Psychiatr. Res. 43:76–87 [Google Scholar]
  137. Pizzagalli DA, Treadway MT. 2014. Neuroimaging approaches to major depressive disorder—from “where?” to “why?”. Handbook of Depression IH Gotlib, CL Hammen New York: Guilford, 3rd. In press [Google Scholar]
  138. Post RM. 1992. Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 149:999–1010 [Google Scholar]
  139. Pryce CR, Dettling AC, Spengler M, Schnell CR, Feldon J. 2004. Deprivation of parenting disrupts development of homeostatic and reward systems in marmoset monkey offspring. Biol. Psychiatry 56:72–79 [Google Scholar]
  140. Ramel W, Goldin PR, Eyler LT, Brown GG, Gotlib IH, McQuaid JR. 2007. Amygdala reactivity and mood-congruent memory in individuals at risk for depressive relapse. Biol. Psychiatry 61:231–39 [Google Scholar]
  141. Rawal A, Collishaw S, Thapar A, Rice F. 2013. “The risks of playing it safe”: a prospective longitudinal study of response to reward in the adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Psychol. Med. 43:27–38 [Google Scholar]
  142. Robinson OJ, Cools R, Carlisi CO, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC. 2012. Ventral striatum response during reward and punishment reversal learning in unmedicated major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 169:152–59 [Google Scholar]
  143. Roiser JP, McLean A, Ogilvie AD, Blackwell AD, Bamber DJ. et al. 2005. The subjective and cognitive effects of acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion in patients recovered from depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:775–85 [Google Scholar]
  144. Rossetti ZL, Lai M, Hmaidan Y, Gessa GL. 1993. Depletion of mesolimbic dopamine during behavioral despair: partial reversal by chronic imipramine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 242:313–15 [Google Scholar]
  145. Rottenberg J, Kasch KL, Gross JJ, Gotlib IH. 2002. Sadness and amusement reactivity differentially predict concurrent and prospective functioning in major depressive disorder. Emotion 2:135–46 [Google Scholar]
  146. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Doran AR, Ninan P, Paul SM. 1985. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine and monoamine metabolite concentrations in melancholia. Psychiatry Res. 15:281–92 [Google Scholar]
  147. Ruedi-Bettschen D, Pedersen EM, Feldon J, Pryce CR. 2005. Early deprivation under specific conditions leads to reduced interest in reward in adulthood in Wistar rats. Behav. Brain Res. 156:297–310 [Google Scholar]
  148. Rygula R, Abumaria N, Havemann-Reinecke U, Ruther E, Hiemke C. et al. 2008. Pharmacological validation of a chronic social stress model of depression in rats: effects of reboxetine, haloperidol and diazepam. Behav. Pharmacol. 19:183–96 [Google Scholar]
  149. Rygula R, Papciak J, Popik P. 2013. Trait pessimism predicts vulnerability to stress-induced anhedonia in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 38:2188–96 [Google Scholar]
  150. Sarchiapone M, Carli V, Camardese G, Cuomo C, Di Giuda D. et al. 2006. Dopamine transporter binding in depressed patients with anhedonia. Psychiatry Res. 147:243–48 [Google Scholar]
  151. Schaefer HS, Putnam KM, Benca RM, Davidson RJ. 2006. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of neural activity to positive social stimuli in pre- and post-treatment depression. Biol. Psychiatry 60:974–86 [Google Scholar]
  152. Schultz W. 1998. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 80:1–27 [Google Scholar]
  153. Serfaty MA, Bothwell R, Marsh R, Ashton H, Blizard R, Scott J. 2002. Event-related potentials and cognitive processing of affectively toned words in depression. J. Psychophysiol. 16:56–66 [Google Scholar]
  154. Shah PJ, Ogilvie AD, Goodwin GM, Ebmeier KP. 1997. Clinical and psychometric correlates of dopamine D2 binding in depression. Psychol. Med. 27:1247–56 [Google Scholar]
  155. Sher L, Oquendo MA, Li S, Huang YY, Grunebaum MF. et al. 2003. Lower CSF homovanillic acid levels in depressed patients with a history of alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1712–19 [Google Scholar]
  156. Sherdell L, Waugh CE, Gotlib IH. 2012. Anticipatory pleasure predicts motivation for reward in major depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 121:51–60 [Google Scholar]
  157. Sloan DM, Strauss ME, Wisner KL. 2001. Diminished response to pleasant stimuli by depressed women. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 110:488–93 [Google Scholar]
  158. Southwick SM, Vythilingam M, Charney DS. 2005. The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: implications for prevention and treatment. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1:255–91 [Google Scholar]
  159. Spear LP. 2000. The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 24:417–63 [Google Scholar]
  160. Spijker J, Bijl RV, de Graaf R, Nolen WA. 2001. Determinants of poor 1-year outcome of DSM-III-R major depression in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 103:122–30 [Google Scholar]
  161. Steele JD, Kumar P, Ebmeier KP. 2007. Blunted response to feedback information in depressive illness. Brain 130:2367–74 [Google Scholar]
  162. Stoy M, Schlagenhauf F, Sterzer P, Bermpohl F, Hägele C. et al. 2012. Hyporeactivity of ventral striatum towards incentive stimuli in unmedicated depressed patients normalizes after treatment with escitalopram. J. Psychopharmacol. 26:677–88 [Google Scholar]
  163. Surguladze SA, Young AW, Senior C, Brebion G, Travis MJ, Phillips ML. 2004. Recognition accuracy and response bias to happy and sad facial expressions in patients with major depression. Neuropsychology 18:212–18 [Google Scholar]
  164. Suslow T, Dannlowski U, Lalee-Mentzel J, Donges US, Arolt V, Kersting A. 2004. Spatial processing of facial emotion in patients with unipolar depression: a longitudinal study. J. Affect. Disord. 83:59–63 [Google Scholar]
  165. Taylor L, Ingram RE. 1999. Cognitive reactivity and depressotypic information processing in children of depressed mothers. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 108:202–10 [Google Scholar]
  166. Timbremont B, Braet C. 2004. Cognitive vulnerability in remitted depressed children and adolescents. Behav. Res. Ther. 42:423–27 [Google Scholar]
  167. Treadway MT, Bossaller NA, Shelton RC, Zald DH. 2012. Effort-based decision-making in major depressive disorder: a translational model of motivational anhedonia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 121:553–58 [Google Scholar]
  168. Treadway MT, Zald DH. 2011. Reconsidering anhedonia in depression: lessons from translational neuroscience. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 35:537–55 [Google Scholar]
  169. Tremblay LK, Naranjo CA, Cardenas L, Herrmann N, Busto UE. 2002. Probing brain reward system function in major depressive disorder: altered response to dextroamphetamine. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 59:409–16 [Google Scholar]
  170. Tremblay LK, Naranjo CA, Graham SJ, Herrmann N, Mayberg HS. et al. 2005. Functional neuroanatomical substrates of altered reward processing in major depressive disorder revealed by a dopaminergic probe. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:1228–36 [Google Scholar]
  171. Tricomi EM, Delgado MR, Fiez JA. 2004. Modulation of caudate activity by action contingency. Neuron 41:281–92 [Google Scholar]
  172. Tyrka AR, Price LH, Marsit C, Walters OC, Carpenter LL. 2012. Childhood adversity and epigenetic modulation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor: preliminary findings in healthy adults. PLoS ONE 7:1e30148 [Google Scholar]
  173. Uher R, Perlis RH, Henigsberg N, Zobel A, Rietschel M. et al. 2012. Depression symptom dimensions as predictors of antidepressant treatment outcome: replicable evidence for interest-activity symptoms. Psychol. Med. 42:967–80 [Google Scholar]
  174. van der Harst JE, Baars AM, Spruijt BM. 2005. Announced rewards counteract the impairment of anticipatory behaviour in socially stressed rats. Behav. Brain Res. 161:183–89 [Google Scholar]
  175. Ventura R, Cabib S, Puglisi-Allegra S. 2002. Genetic susceptibility of mesocortical dopamine to stress determines liability to inhibition of mesoaccumbens dopamine and to behavioral “despair” in a mouse model of depression. Neuroscience 115:999–1007 [Google Scholar]
  176. Von Frijtag JC, Reijmers LG, Van der Harst JE, Leus IE, Van den Bos R, Spruijt BM. 2000. Defeat followed by individual housing results in long-term impaired reward- and cognition-related behaviours in rats. Behav. Brain Res. 117:137–46 [Google Scholar]
  177. Vrieze E, Pizzagalli DA, Demyttenaere K, Hompes T, Sienaert P. et al. 2013. Reduced reward learning predicts outcome in major depressive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 73:639–45 [Google Scholar]
  178. Wang CE, Brennen T, Holte A. 2006. Decreased approach motivation in depression. Scand. J. Psychol. 47:505–11 [Google Scholar]
  179. Wardenaar KJ, Giltay EJ, van Veen T, Zitman FG, Penninx BW. 2012. Symptom dimensions as predictors of the two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J. Affect. Disord. 136:1198–203 [Google Scholar]
  180. Wichers MC, Barge-Schaapveld DQ, Nicolson NA, Peeters F, de Vries M. et al. 2008. Reduced stress-sensitivity or increased reward experience: the psychological mechanism of response to antidepressant medication. Neuropsychopharmacology 34:923–31 [Google Scholar]
  181. Widom CS, DuMont K, Czaja SJ. 2007. A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64:49–56 [Google Scholar]
  182. Williams JMG, Watts FN, MacLeod C, Mathews A. 1997. Cognitive Psychology and Emotional Disorders Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  183. Willner P. 2005. Chronic mild stress (CMS) revisited: consistency and behavioural-neurobiological concordance in the effects of CMS. Neuropsychobiology 52:90–110 [Google Scholar]
  184. Willner P, Wilkes M, Orwin A. 1990. Attributional style and perceived stress in endogenous and reactive depression. J. Affect. Disord. 18:281–87 [Google Scholar]
  185. Wrase J, Kahnt T, Schlagenhauf F, Beck A, Cohen MX. et al. 2007. Different neural systems adjust motor behavior in response to reward and punishment. NeuroImage 36:1253–62 [Google Scholar]
  186. Zhang TY, Labonté B, Wen XL, Turecki G, Meaney MJ. 2013. Epigenetic mechanisms for the early environmental regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression in rodents and humans. Neuropsychopharmacol. Rev. 38:111–23 [Google Scholar]
  187. Zurita A, Martijena I, Cuadra G, Brandao ML, Molina V. 2000. Early exposure to chronic variable stress facilitates the occurrence of anhedonia and enhanced emotional reactions to novel stressors: reversal by naltrexone pretreatment. Behav. Brain Res. 117:163–71 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185606
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185606
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error