1932

Abstract

We live in an age of psychopharmacology. One in six persons currently takes a psychotropic drug. These drugs have profoundly shaped our scientific and cultural understanding of psychiatric disease. By way of a historical review, we try to make sense of psychiatry's dependency on psychiatric drugs in the care of patients. Modern psychopharmacology began in 1950 with the synthesis of chlorpromazine. Over the course of the next 50 years, the psychiatric understanding and treatment of mental illness radically changed. Psychotropic drugs played a major part in these changes as state hospitals closed and psychotherapy gave way to drug prescriptions. Our review suggests that the success of psychopharmacology was not the consequence of increasingly more effective drugs for discrete psychiatric diseases. Instead, a complex mix of political economic realities, pharmaceutical marketing, basic science advances, and changes in the mental health-care system have led to our current infatuation with psychopharmacology.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095514
2019-05-07
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/15/1/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095514.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095514&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ackerknecht EH 1979. The history of the drug treatment of mental diseases. Trans. Stud. Coll. Physicians Phila. 1:161–70
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ackner B, Harris A, Oldham AJ 1957. Insulin treatment of schizophrenia; a controlled study. Lancet 272:607–11
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 1952. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ. , 1st ed..
  4. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 1980. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ. , 3rd ed..
  5. Anton-Stephens D 1954. Preliminary observations on the psychiatric uses of chlorpromazine (Largactil). J. Ment. Sci. 100:543–57
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Armitage P 1972. History of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 299:1388
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Axelrod J, Whitby LG, Hertting G 1961. Effect of psychotropic drugs on the uptake of H3-norepinephrine by tissues. Science 133:383–84
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ayd FJ Jr 1960. Amitriptyline (Elavil) therapy for depressive reactions. Psychosomatics 1:320–25
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ayd FJ Jr 1961. Recognizing the Depressed Patient: With Essentials of Management and Treatment New York: Grune & Stratton
  10. Baldessarini RJ, Cole JO, Davis JM 1980. Tardive dyskinesia: summary of a task force report of the American Psychiatric Association. Am. J. Psychiatry 137:1163–72
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Barsa JA 1963. The fallacy of the “double blind. .” Am. J. Psychiatry 119:1174–75
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Baumeister AA, Francis JL 2002. Historical development of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. J. Neurosci. 11:265–77
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Benson WM, Schiele BC 1962. Tranquilizing and Antidepressive Drugs New York: Thomas
  14. Bleuler E 1950(1911). Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias New York: Am. Inst. Psychol. Res.
  15. Bourne J 1953. The insulin myth. Lancet 2:964–68
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bower WH 1954. Chlorpromazine in psychiatric illness. N. Engl. J. Med. 251:689–92
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Braslow JT 1997. Mental Ills and Bodily Cures: Psychiatric Treatment in the First Half of the Twentieth Century Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
  18. Braslow JT, Starks SL 2005. The making of contemporary American psychiatry, Part 2: Therapeutics and gender before and after World War II. Hist. Psychol. 8:271–88
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brill H, Patton RE 1957. Analysis of 1955–1956 population fall in New York State mental hospitals in first year of large-scale use of tranquilizing drugs. Am. J. Psychiatry 114:509–17
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brill H, Patton RE 1959. Analysis of population reduction in New York State mental hospitals during the first four years of large-scale therapy with psychotropic drugs. Am. J. Psychiatry 116:495–508
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Brill H, Patton RE 1962. Clinical–statistical analysis of population changes in New York State mental hospitals since introduction of psychotropic drugs. Am. J. Psychiatry 119:20–35
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Brodie BB, Shore PA 1957. A concept for a role of serotonin and norepinephrine as chemical mediators in the brain. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 66:631–42
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bunney WE, Davis JM 1965. Norepinephrine in depressive reactions: a review. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 13:483–94
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Carlsson A 2000. A Half-Century of Neurotransmitter Research: Impact on Neurology and Psychiatry Stockholm: Nobel Found.
  25. Carlsson A 2001. A paradigm shift in brain research. Science 294:1021–24
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Carlsson A, Lindqvist M, Magnusson T 1957. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature 180:1200
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Casey JF, Lasky JJ, Klett CJ, Hollister LE 1960. Treatment of schizophrenic reactions with phenothiazine derivatives: a comparative study of chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, mepazine, prochlorperazine, perphenazine, and phenobarbital. Am. J. Psychiatry 117:97–105
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cole JO, Goldberg SC, Klerman GL 1964. Phenothiazine treatment in acute schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 10:246–61
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Crilly J 2007. The history of clozapine and its emergence in the US market: a review and analysis. Hist. Psychiatry 18:39–60
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Davies DL, Shepherd M 1955. Reserpine in the treatment of anxious and depressed patients. Lancet 266:117–20
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Drapes T 1889. Hyoscin in insanity. BMJ 1:942
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Elkes J, Elkes C 1954. Effect of chlorpromazine on the behaviour of chronically overactive psychotic patients. BMJ 2:560–65
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Farrar CB 1954. Am. J. Psychiatry 110:11)
  34. Farrar CB 1956. Am. J. Psychiatry 112:12)
  35. Freeman DX 1973. Neurological syndromes associated with antipsychotic drug use: a special report. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 28:463–67
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Gaddum JH 1953. Antagonism between lysergic acid diethylamide and 5-hydroxytryptamine. J. Physiol. 121:15P
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Gelman S 1999. Medicating Schizophrenia: A History New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  38. Grob GN 1994. The Mad Among Us: A History of the Care of America's Mentally Ill New York: Simon & Schuster
  39. Gronfein W 1985. Psychotropic drugs and the origins of deinstitutionalization. Soc. Probl. 32:437–54
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hamilton M 1960. A rating scale for depression. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 23:56–62
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hall M 1999. ‘You have to get help:’ frightening experience now a tool to help others. USA Today May 7:A1
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Healy D 1997. The Antidepressant Era Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  43. Healy D 2002. The Creation of Psychopharmacology Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  44. Healy D, Savage M 1998. Reserpine exhumed. Br. J. Psychiatry 172:376–78
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hillhouse TM, Porter JH 2015. A brief history of the development of antidepressant drugs: from monoamines to glutamate. Exp. Clin. Psychopharmacol 23:1–21
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hippius H 1989. The history of clozapine. Psychopharmacology 99:Suppl.S3–5
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hippius H 1999. A historical perspective of clozapine. J. Clin. Psychiatry 60:Suppl. 1222–23
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hodgkin D, Thomas CP, O'Brien PL, Levit K, Richardson J et al. 2016. Projected spending on psychotropic medications 2013–2020. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 43:497–505
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hoffman J 1949. Critique of lobotomy. N. Engl. J. Med. 241:233–36
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Insel TR 2010. Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature 468:187–93
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Jenkins RL, Holsopple JQ 1953. Criteria and experimental design for evaluating results of lobotomy. Res. Publ. Assoc. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 31:319–27
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Jones PB, Barnes TRE, Davies L, Dunn G, Lloyd H et al. 2006. Randomized controlled trial of the effect on quality of life of second- versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS 1). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 63:1079–87
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kane JM, Honigfeld G, Singer J, Meltzer H 1988. Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic: a double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 45:789–96
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Kane JM, Honigfeld G, Singer J, Meltzer H 1989. Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic: results of a US multicenter trial. Psychopharmacology 99:Suppl.S60–63
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Kaptchuck TJ 1998. Intentional ignorance: a history of blind assessment and placebo controls in medicine. Bull. Hist. Med. 72:389–433
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kendler KS, Schaffner KF 2011. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: an historical and philosophical analysis. Philos. Psychiatry Psychol. 18:41–63
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Kerner J, McCoy B 2017. Antipsychotics: History, Science, and Issues Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood
  58. Kinross-Wright V 1954. Chlorpromazine—a major advance in psychiatric treatment. Postgrad. Med. 16:297–99
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kirsch I 2010. The Emperor's New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth New York: Random House
  60. Kline NS 1954. Use of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. in neuropsychiatric conditions. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 59:107–32
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kramer M 1977. Psychiatric Services and the Changing Institutional Scene, 1950–1985 Rockville, MD: NIMH (Natl. Inst. Ment. Health)
  62. Kramer PD 1994. Listening to Prozac: A Psychiatrist Explores Antidepressant Drugs and the Remaking of the Self New York: Penguin
  63. Kuhn R 1958. The treatment of depressive states with G 22355 (imipramine hydrochloride). Am. J. Psychiatry 115:459–64
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kurland AA 1955. Chlorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia: a study of 75 cases. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 121:321–29
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Lehmann HE 1955. Therapeutic results with chlorpromazine (Largactil) in psychiatric conditions. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 72:91–99
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Lehmann HE 1993. Before they called it psychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology 8:291–303
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Leucht S, Cipriani A, Spineli L, Mavridis D, Örey D et al. 2013. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet 382:951–62
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Libby AM, Brent DA, Morrato EH, Orton HD, Allen R, Valuck RJ 2007. Decline in treatment of pediatric depression after FDA advisory on risk of suicidality with SSRIs. Am. J. Psychiatry 164:884–91
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Rosenheck RA et al. 2005. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:1209–23
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Lilienfeld AM 1982. Ceteris paribus: the evolution of the clinical trial. Bull. Hist. Med. 56:1–18
    [Google Scholar]
  71. López-Muñoz F, Alamo CE 2009. Monoaminergic neurotransmission: the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today. Curr. Pharm. Des. 15:1563–86
    [Google Scholar]
  72. López-Muñoz F, Alamo CE, Shen W, Clervoy P, Rubio G 2005. History of the discovery and clinical introduction of chlorpromazine. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry 17:113–35
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Mark TL, Kassed C, Levit K, Vandivort-Warren R 2012. An analysis of the slowdown in growth of spending for psychiatric drugs, 1986–2008. Psychiatr. Serv. 63:13–18
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Marks HM 1997. The Progress of Experiment Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  75. Maudsley H 1895. The Pathology of Mind: A Study of its Distempers, Deformities, and Disorders London: Macmillan
  76. Med. Res. Counc. 1948. Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. BMJ 2:769–82
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Meltzer HY, Stahl SM 1976. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: a review. Schizophr. Bull. 2:19–76
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Mermelstein MD 1956. Evaluative study of one hundred transorbital leucotomies. J. Clin. Psychiatry 12:271–76
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Mojtabai R, Olfson M 2014. National trends in long-term use of antidepressant medications: results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J. Clin. Psychiatry 75:169–77
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Olfson M, King M, Schoenbaum M 2015. Antipsychotic treatment of adults in the United States. J. Clin. Psychiatry 76:1346–53
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Overholser W 1956. Has chlorpromazine inaugurated a new era in mental hospitals?. J. Clin. Exp. Psychopathol. 17:197–201
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Pletscher A, Shore PA, Brodie BB 1955. Serotonin release as a possible mechanism of reserpine action. Science 122:374–75
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Pow JL, Baumeister AA, Hawkins MF, Cohen AS, Garand JC 2015. Deinstitutionalization of American public hospitals for the mentally ill before and after the introduction of antipsychotic medications. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 23:176–87
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Rasmussen N 2006. Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950. J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 61:288–323
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Sadowsky J 2016. Electroconvulsive Therapy in America New York: Taylor & Francis
  86. Sarwer-Foner GJ 1960. The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drug Therapy Springfield, IL: Thomas
  87. Schildkraut JJ 1965. The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: a review of supporting evidence. Am. J. Psychiatry 122:509–22
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Schou M, Juel-Nielsen N, Strömgren E, Voldby H 1954. The treatment of manic psychoses by the administration of lithium salts. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 17:250–60
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Scull A 1990. Deinstitutionalization: cycles of despair. J. Mind Behav. 11:301–11
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Scull A 2015. Madness in Civilization: A Cultural History of Insanity, from the Bible to Freud, from the Madhouse to Modern Medicine Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  91. Selikoff IJ, Robitzek EH 1952. Tuberculosis chemotherapy with hydrazine derivatives of isonicotinic acid. Dis. Chest 21:385–438
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Shorter E 1997. A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac New York: Wiley
  93. Shorter E 2008. Before Prozac: The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Starks SL, Braslow JT 2005. The making of contemporary American psychiatry, Part 1: Patients, treatments, and therapeutic rationales before and after World War II. Hist. Psychol. 8:176–93
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Swazey JP 1974. Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry: A Study of Therapeutic Innovation Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  96. Tone A 2008. The Age of Anxiety: A History of America's Turbulent Affair with Tranquilizers New York: Basic Books
  97. Valuck RJ, Libby AM, Orton HD, Morrato EH, Allen R, Baldessarini RJ 2007. Spillover effects on treatment of adult depression in primary care after FDA advisory on risk of pediatric suicidality with SSRIs. Am. J. Psychiatry 164:1198–1205
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Veterans Adm 1956. Transactions of the First Research Conference on Chemotherapy in Psychiatry: Held April 26 and 27, 1956 at the VA Hospital, Downey, Illinois, by the Psychiatry and Neurology Service, Office of the Assistant Chief Medical Director for Planning, Department of Medicine and Surgery Washington, DC: Veterans Adm.
  99. Wang SM, Han C, Lee SJ, Jun TY, Patkar AA et al. 2018. Efficacy of antidepressants: bias in randomized clinical trials and related issues. Expert Rev. Clin. Pharmacol. 11:15–25
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Winkelman NW 1954. Chlorpromazine in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. JAMA 155:18–21
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Wortis J 1954. Physiological treatment. Am. J. Psychiatry 110:507–11
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Zubin J 1953. Evaluation of therapeutic outcome in mental disorders. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 117:95–111
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095514
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095514
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error