1932

Abstract

One-Session Treatment is a well-established evidence-based treatment for specific phobias in youths that incorporates reinforcement, cognitive challenges, participant modeling, psychoeducation, and skills training into a single, massed session of graduated exposure. This review begins by briefly examining the phenomenology, etiology, epidemiology, and assessment of specific phobias and then pivots to a description of One-Session Treatment. We examine the use of One-Session Treatment with children and adolescents, briefly discussing its components and application, and subsequently review almost two decades of research supporting its efficacy. Finally, we propose future directions for research and practice.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095608
2019-05-07
2024-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/15/1/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095608.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095608&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA 2001. Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles Burlington, VT: Univ. Vt., Res. Cent. Child. Youth Fam.
  2. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 1952. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ. , 1st ed..
  3. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Arlington, VA: Am. Psychiatr. Publ. , 5th ed..
  4. Barlow DH 2002. Anxiety and Its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic New York: Guilford Press. , 2nd ed..
  5. Becker E, Rinck M, Türke V, Kause P, Goodwin R et al. 2007. Epidemiology of specific phobia subtypes: findings from the Dresden Mental Health Study. Eur. Psychiatry 22:69–74
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Benoit Allen K, Allen B, Austin KE, Waldron JC, Ollendick TH 2015. Synchrony–desynchrony in the tripartite model of fear: predicting treatment outcome in clinically phobic children. Behav. Res. Ther. 71:54–64
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Byrne SP, Rapee RM, Malhi GS, Sweller N, Hudson J 2016. An examination of harm beliefs in dog fearful children. J. Exp. Psychopathol. 7:153–59
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Byrne SP, Rapee RM, Richardson R, Malhi GS, Jones M, Hudson JL 2015. d-cycloserine enhances generalization of fear extinction in children. Depress. Anxiety 32:408–14
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Castagna P, Davis TE3rd, Lilly M 2017. The behavioral avoidance task with anxious youth: a review of procedures, properties, and criticisms. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 20:162–84
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chambless DL, Ollendick TH 2001. Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:685–716
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Crocq M 2015. A history of anxiety: from Hippocrates to DSM. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 17:319–25
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davis TE3rd 2013. Where to from here for ASD and anxiety? Lessons learned from child anxiety and the issue of DSM-5. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 19:358–63
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Davis TE3rd, Jenkins W, Rudy B 2012a. Empirical status of one-session treatment. See Davis et al. 2012b 209–26
  14. Davis TE3rd, Kurtz P, Gardner A, Carman N 2007. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for specific phobias with a child demonstrating severe problem behavior and developmental delays. Res. Dev. Disabil. 28:546–58
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Davis TE3rd, May AC, Whiting SE 2011. Evidence-based treatment of anxiety and phobia in children and adolescents: current status and effects on the emotional response. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31:592–602
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Davis TE3rd, Ollendick TH 2005. Empirically supported treatments for specific phobia in children: Do efficacious treatments address the components of a phobic response?. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 12:144–60
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Davis TE3rd, Ollendick TH 2011.Specific phobias. In Handbook of Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders D McKay, E Storch 231–44 New York: Springer
  18. Davis TE3rd, Ollendick TH 2014. Fear: autism spectrum disorder and/or specific phobia. Handbook of Autism and Anxiety TE Davis 3rd, SW White, TH Ollendick 137–52 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Davis TE3rd, Ollendick TH, Öst LG 2009. Intensive treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents. Cogn. Behav. Pract. 16:294–303
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Davis TE3rd, Ollendick TH, Öst LG 2012b. Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias New York: Springer
  21. Davis TE3rd, Ollendick TH, Reuther ET, Munson M 2012c. One-session treatment: principles and procedures with children and adolescents. See Davis et al. 2012b 97–125
  22. Davis TE3rd, Reuther E, May A, Rudy B, Munson M et al. 2013a. The behavioral avoidance task using imaginal exposure (BATIE): a paper-and-pencil version of traditional in vivo behavioral avoidance tasks. Psychol. Assess. 25:1111–19
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Davis TE3rd, Reuther ET, Rudy BM 2013b. One session treatment of a specific phobia of swallowing pills: a case study. Clin. Case Stud. 12:399–410
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Deacon B, Lickel J, Abramowitz JS 2008. Medical utilization across the anxiety disorders. J. Anxiety Disord. 22:344–50
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Distel MA, Vink JM, Willemsen G, Middeldorp CM, Merckelbach H, Boomsma DI 2008. Heritability of self-reported phobic fear. Behav. Genet. 38:24–33
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Farrell L, Kershaw H, Ollendick TH 2018a. Play-modified one-session treatment for young children with a specific phobia of dogs: a multiple baseline case series. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 49:317–29
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Farrell L, Waters A, Oar E, Tiralongo E, Garbharran B et al. 2018b. d-cycloserine-augmented one-session treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents. Brain. Behav. 8:e00984
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Flatt N, King N 2010. Brief psycho-social interventions in the treatment of specific childhood phobias: A controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. Behav. Change 27:130–53
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Fredrikson M, Annas P, Fisher H, Wik G 1996. Gender and age differences in the prevalence of specific fears and phobias. Behav. Res. Ther. 34:33–39
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Fyer AJ, Mannuzza S, Gallops MS, Martin LY, Aaronson C et al. 1990. Familial transmission of simple phobias and fears. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 47:252–56
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hagopian L, Lilly M, Davis TE3rd 2017. Behavioral treatments for anxiety in minimally verbal children with ASD. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence-Based Assessment and Treatment CM Kerns, P Renno, EA Storch, PC Kendall, JJ Wood 193–210 Cambridge, MA: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Halldorsdottir T, Ollendick TH 2016. Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: the negative impact of ADHD symptoms. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 84:465–71
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hettema JM, Prescott CA, Myers JM, Neale MC, Kendler KS 2005. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for anxiety disorders in men and women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:182–89
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hodgson R, Rachman S 1974. Desynchrony in measures of fear. Behav. Res. Ther. 12:319–26
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kendler KS, Prescott CA, Myers J, Neale MC 2003. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 60:929–37
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kershaw H, Farrell LJ, Donovan C, Ollendick TH 2017. Cognitive behavioral therapy in a one session treatment for a preschooler with specific phobias. J. Cogn. Psychother. 31:7–22
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE 2005a. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:593–602
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE 2005b. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:617–27
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lang PJ 1979. A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology 16:495–512
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Leutgeb V, Schäfer A, Köchel A, Schienle A 2012. Exposure therapy leads to enhanced late frontal positivity in 8- to 13-year-old spider phobic girls. Biol. Psychol. 90:97–104
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Leutgeb V, Schienle A 2012. Changes in facial electromyographic activity in spider-phobic girls after psychotherapy. J. Psychiatr. Res. 46:805–10
    [Google Scholar]
  42. March J 2013. Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children Toronto: Multi-Health Syst. , 2nd ed..
  43. Marks I 2002. Innate and learned fears are at opposite ends of a continuum of associability. Behav. Res. Ther. 40:165–67
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Menzies RG, Clarke JC 1995. The etiology of phobias: a nonassociative account. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 15:23–48
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Merckelbach H, De Jong PJ, Muris P, Van den Hout MA 1996. The etiology of specific phobias: a review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 16:337–61
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Merikangas KR, He J, Burstein M, Swanson S, Avenevoli S et al. 2010. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Study–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 49:980–89
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Mineka S, Zinbarg R 2006. A contemporary learning theory perspective on the etiology of anxiety disorders. Am. Psychol. 61:10–26
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Moree B, Davis TE3rd 2010. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: modification trends. Res. Autism Spectr. Disord. 4:346–54
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Muris P, Merckelbach H 2012. Specific phobia: phenomenology, epidemiology, and etiology. See Davis et al. 2012b 3–18
  50. Muris P, Merckelbach H, Holdrinet I, Sijsenaar M 1998. Treating phobic children: effects of EMDR versus exposure. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 66:193–198
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Muris P, Merckelbach H, Meesters C, van den Brand K 2002. Cognitive development and worry in normal children. Cogn. Ther. Res. 26:775–87
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Muris P, Merckelbach H, Van Haaften H, Mayer B 1997. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing versus exposure in vivo: a single-session crossover study of spider-phobic children. Br. J. Psychiatry 171:82–71
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Muris P, Schmidt H, Merckelbach H 1999. The structure of specific phobia symptoms among children and adolescents. Behav. Res. Ther. 37:863–68
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Nebel-Schwalm M, Davis TE3rd 2013. Nature and etiological models of anxiety disorders. Handbook of Treating Variants and Complications in Anxiety Disorders E Storch, D McKay 3–21 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Nielsen MD, Andreasen CL, Thastum M 2016. A Danish study of one-session treatment for specific phobias in children and adolescents. Scand. J. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry Psychol. 4:65–76
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Oar EL, Farrell LJ, Conlon EG, Waters AM, Ollendick TH 2017. Patterns of response and remission following a one-session treatment for blood–injection–injury phobia in youth. Child Fam. Behav. Ther. 39:43–71
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Oar EL, Farrell LJ, Ollendick TH 2015a. One session treatment for specific phobias: an adaptation for paediatric blood–injection–injury phobia in youth. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 18:370–94
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Oar EL, Farrell LJ, Waters AM, Conlon EG, Ollendick TH 2015b. One session treatment for pediatric blood–injection–injury phobia: a controlled multiple baseline trial. Behav. Res. Ther. 73:131–71
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Olatunji BO, Deacon BJ, Abramowitz AS 2009. The cruelest cure? Ethical issues in the implementation of exposure-based treatments. Cogn. Behav. Pract. 16:172–80
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Ollendick TH 1983. Reliability and validity of the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Behav. Res. Ther. 21:685–92
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Ollendick TH, Davis TE3rd 2013. One-session treatment for specific phobias: a review of Öst's single-session exposure with children and adolescents. Cogn. Behav. Ther. 42:275–83
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Ollendick TH, Davis TE3rd, Muris P 2004. Treatment of specific phobia in children and adolescents. The Handbook of Interventions that Work with Children and Adolescents: Prevention and Treatment PM Barrett, TH Ollendick 273–99 Chichester, UK: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Ollendick TH, Davis TE3rd, Sirbu CV 2009a. Specific phobias. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children: Treating Complex and Refractory Cases D McKay, E Storch 171–99 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Ollendick TH, Hagopian LP, King NJ 1997. Specific phobias in children. Phobias: A Handbook of Theory, Research and Treatment GCL Davey 201–23 Chichester, UK: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Ollendick TH, Halldorsdottir T, Fraire M, Austin K, Noguchi R et al. 2015. Specific phobias in youth: a randomized controlled trial comparing one-session treatment to a parent-augmented one-session treatment. Behav. Ther. 46:141–55
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ollendick TH, King NJ 1991. Origins of childhood fears: an evaluation of Rachman's theory of fear acquisition. Behav. Res. Ther. 29:117–23
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Ollendick TH, King NJ 1998. Empirically supported treatments for children with phobic and anxious disorders: current status. J. Clin. Child Psychol. 27:156–67
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Ollendick TH, King NJ, Muris P 2002. Fears and phobias in children: phenomenology, epidemiology, and aetiology. Child. Adolesc. Mental Health 7:98–106
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Ollendick TH, Öst LG, Reuterskiöld L, Costa N 2010. Comorbidity in youth with specific phobias: impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome and the impact of treatment on comorbid disorders. Behav. Res. Ther. 48:827–31
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ollendick TH, Öst LG, Reuterskiöld L, Costa N, Cederlund R et al. 2009b. One-session treatment of specific phobias in youth: a randomized clinical trial in the USA and Sweden. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 77:504–16
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ollendick TH, Öst LG, Ryan SM, Capriola NN, Reuterskiöld L 2017a. Harm beliefs and coping expectations in youth with specific phobias. Behav. Res. Ther. 91:51–57
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Ollendick TH, Ryan SM, Capriola-Hall NN, Austin KE, Fraire M 2018. Have phobias, will travel: addressing one barrier to the delivery of an evidence-based treatment. Behav. Ther. 49:594–603
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Ollendick TH, Ryan SM, Capriola-Hall NN, Reuterskiöld L, Öst LG 2017b. The mediating role of changes in harm beliefs and coping efficacy in youth with specific phobias. Behav. Res. Ther. 99:131–37
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Öst LG 1987a. One-session treatments for a case of multiple simple phobias. Scand. J. Behav. Ther. 16:175–84
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Öst LG 1987b. Age of onset in different phobias. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 96:223–29
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Öst LG 1989. One-session treatment for specific phobias. Behav. Res. Ther. 27:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Öst LG 1996. One-session group treatment of spider phobia. Behav. Res. Ther. 34:707–15
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Öst LG 1997. Rapid treatment of specific phobias. Phobias: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Treatment GCL Davey 227–47 Chichester, UK: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Öst LG 2012. One-session treatment: principles and procedures with adults. See Davis et al. 2012b 59–96
  80. Öst LG, Ferebee I, Furmark T 1997. One-session group therapy of spider phobia: direct versus indirect treatments. Behav. Res. Ther. 35:721–32
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Öst LG, Ollendick TH 2017. Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Behav. Res. Ther. 97:134–45
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Öst LG, Salkovskis P, Hellström K 1991. One-session therapist-directed exposure versus self-exposure in the treatment of spider phobia. Behav. Ther. 21:407–22
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Öst LG, Sterner U 1987. Applied tension: a specific behavioral method for treatment of blood phobia. Behav. Res. Ther. 25:25–29
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Öst LG, Svensson L, Hellström K, Lindwall R 2001. One-session treatment of specific phobias in youths: a randomized clinical trial. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 69:814–24
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Pull CB 2008. Recent trends in the study of specific phobias. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 21:43–50
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Rachman S, Hodgson R 1974. Synchrony and desynchrony in fear and avoidance. Behav. Res. Ther. 12:311–18
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Roberts CL, Farrell LJ, Waters AM, Oar EL, Ollendick TH 2016. Parents’ perceptions of novel treatments for child and adolescent specific phobia and anxiety disorders. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 47:459–71
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Rudy B, Davis TE3rd 2012. Interventions for specific phobia in special populations. See Davis et al. 2012b 177–93
  89. Ryan SM, Strege MV, Oar EL, Ollendick TH 2017. One session treatment for specific phobias in children: comorbid anxiety disorders and treatment outcome. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 54:128–34
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Seligman MEP 1971. Phobias and preparedness. Behav. Ther. 2:307–20
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Silverman WK, Albano AM 1996. Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV) Child/Parent Version San Antonio, TX: Psychol. Corp.
  92. Silverman WK, Ollendick TH 2005. Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and its disorders in children and adolescents. J. Clin. Child. Adolesc. Psychol. 34:380–411
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou P, Smith S, Goldstein RB et al. 2007. The epidemiology of DSM-IV specific phobia in the USA: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychol. Med. 37:1047–59
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Svensson L, Larsson A, Öst LG 2002. How children experience brief-exposure treatment of specific phobias. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 31:80–89
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Waters AM, Farrell LJ, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ, Milliner E, Tiralongo E et al. 2014. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli. Behav. Res. Ther. 62:107–19
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Viar-Paxton MA, Olatunji BO 2012. Ethical issues when considering exposure. See Davis et al. 2012b 195–208
  97. Wright B, Scott A, Cooper C, Marshall D, Tindall L et al. 2018. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of one-session treatment (OST) versus multisession cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for specific phobias in children: protocol for a non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open 8:e025031
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Zlomke K, Davis TE3rd 2008. One-session treatment of specific phobias: a detailed description and review of treatment efficacy. Behav. Ther. 39:207–23
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095608
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095608
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error