As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors’ ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging. Methodological advances include the development of () measurement approaches that assess more fine-grained subcomponents of cognition based on cognitive neuroscience and () advanced statistical approaches. Conceptual issues that arise from this multidimensional perspective are described in relation to future directions, understanding of mechanisms, and development of innovative interventions.


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