1932

Abstract

Children of immigrants represent one in four children in the United States and will represent one in three children by 2050. Children of Asian and Latino immigrants together represent the majority of children of immigrants in the United States. Children of immigrants may be immigrants themselves, or they may have been born in the United States to foreign-born parents; their status may be legal or undocumented. We review transcultural and culture-specific factors that influence the various ways in which stressors are experienced; we also discuss the ways in which parental socialization and developmental processes function as risk factors or protective factors in their influence on the mental health of children of immigrants. Children of immigrants with elevated risk for mental health problems are more likely to be undocumented immigrants, refugees, or unaccompanied minors. We describe interventions and policies that show promise for reducing mental health problems among children of immigrants in the United States.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084925
2018-05-07
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/14/1/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084925.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084925&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aiken LS, West SG. 1991. Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  2. Alegría M, Mulvaney-Day N, Torres M, Polo A, Cao Z, Canino G. 2007. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the United States. Am. J. Public Health 97:68–75Reports prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders in the Latino population from NLAAS. [Google Scholar]
  3. Am. Immigr. Counc 2015. A Guide to Children Arriving at the Border: Laws, Policies, and Responses Washington, DC: Am. Immigr. Counc
  4. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 4th ed
  5. Arenas E, Goldman N, Pebley AR, Teruel G. 2015. Return migration to Mexico: Does health matter?. Demography 52:1853–68 [Google Scholar]
  6. Armenta BE, Lee RM, Pituc ST, Jung K-R, Park IJK. et al. 2013. Where are you from? A validation of the Foreigner Objectification Scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 19:131–42Demonstrates the pernicious effect of foreigner stress on Asians and Latinos. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bacallao ML, Smokowski PR. 2005. “Entre Dos Mundos” (Between Two Worlds): bicultural skills training with Latino immigrant families. J. Prim. Prev. 26:485–509 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bacio GA, Mays VM, Lau AS. 2013. Drinking initiation and problematic drinking among Latino adolescents: explanations of the immigrant paradox. Psychol. Addict. Behav. 27:14–22 [Google Scholar]
  9. Benet-Martínez V, Haritatos J. 2005. Bicultural identity integration (BII): components and psychosocial antecedents. J. Personal. 73:1015–50 [Google Scholar]
  10. Benner AD, Kim SY. 2009.a Experiences of discrimination among Chinese American adolescents and the consequences for socioemotional and academic development. Dev. Psychol. 45:1682–94 [Google Scholar]
  11. Benner AD, Kim SY. 2009.b Intergenerational experiences of discrimination in Chinese American families: influences of socialization and stress. J. Marriage Fam. 71:862–77 [Google Scholar]
  12. Berry JW, Phinney JS, Sam DL, Vedder P. 2006. Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation Across National Contexts Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
  13. Bialystok E. 2001. Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  14. Bialystok E. 2011. Reshaping the mind: the benefits of bilingualism. Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 65:229–35 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bialystok E. 2015. Bilingualism and the development of executive function: the role of attention. Child Dev. Perspect. 9:117–21 [Google Scholar]
  16. Blakemore S-J, Mills KL. 2014. Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing?. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 65:187–207 [Google Scholar]
  17. Breslau J, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Borges G, Kendler KS, Su M, Kessler RC. 2007. Risk for psychiatric disorder among immigrants and their US-born descendants: evidence from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 195:189–95 [Google Scholar]
  18. Calzada EJ, Huang K-Y, Anicama C, Fernandez Y, Brotman LM. 2012. Test of a cultural framework of parenting with Latino families of young children. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 18:285–96 [Google Scholar]
  19. Case A, Fertig A, Paxson C. 2005. The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. J. Health Econ. 24:365–89 [Google Scholar]
  20. Castañeda H, Holmes SM, Madrigal DS, DeTrinidad Young M-E, Beyeler N, Quesada J. 2015. Immigration as a social determinant of health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 36:375–92 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chan EYY, Mercer SW, Yue C, Wong S, Griffiths SM. 2009. Mental health of migrant children. Int. J. Ment. Health 38:44–52 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chao RK. 1994. Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Dev 65:1111–19 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chao RK. 2006. The prevalence and consequences of adolescents' language brokering for their immigrant parents. Acculturation and Parent–Child Relationships: Measurement and Development MH Bornstein, LR Cote 271–96 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  24. Chen SX, Benet-Martínez V, Bond MH. 2008. Bicultural identity, bilingualism, and psychological adjustment in multicultural societies: immigration-based and globalization-based acculturation. J. Personal. 76:803–38 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ciaccia KA, John RM. 2016. Unaccompanied immigrant minors: where to begin. J. Pediatr. Health Care 30:231–40 [Google Scholar]
  26. Collins LM, Lanza ST. 2010. Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis: With Applications in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
  27. Conger RD, Conger KJ. 2002. Resilience in Midwestern families: selected findings from the first decade of a prospective, longitudinal study. J. Marriage Fam. 64:361–73 [Google Scholar]
  28. Connor P, Lopez G. 2016. 5 facts about the U.S. rank in worldwide migration. Factank: News in the Numbers May 18
  29. Crouter AC, Davis KD, Updegraff K, Delgado M, Fortner M. 2006. Mexican American fathers' occupational conditions: links to family members' psychological adjustment. J. Marriage Fam. 68:843–58 [Google Scholar]
  30. Darling N, Steinberg L. 1993. Parenting style as context: an integrative model. Psychol. Bull. 113:487–96 [Google Scholar]
  31. Drachman D. 1992. A stage-of-migration framework for service to immigrant populations. Soc. Work 37:68–72 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dreby J. 2012.a The burden of deportation on children in Mexican immigrant families. J. Marriage Fam. 74:829–45Shows the deleterious effect of parental deportation on children. [Google Scholar]
  33. Dreby J. 2012.b How Today's Immigration Enforcement Policies Impact Children, Families, and Communities: A View from the Ground Washington, DC: Cent. Am. Prog
  34. Dreby J, Adkins T. 2012. The strength of family ties: how US migration shapes children's ideas of family. Child. Glob. J. Child Res. 19:169–87 [Google Scholar]
  35. Duldulao AA, Takeuchi DT, Hong S. 2009. Correlates of suicidal behaviors among Asian Americans. Arch. Suicide Res. 13:277–90 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ellis BH, MacDonald HZ, Klunk-Gillis J, Lincoln A, Strunin L, Cabral HJ. 2010. Discrimination and mental health among Somali refugee adolescents: the role of acculturation and gender. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 80:564–75 [Google Scholar]
  37. Ellis BH, Miller AB, Abdi S, Barrett C, Blood EA, Betancourt TS. 2013. Multi-tier mental health program for refugee youth. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 81:129–40 [Google Scholar]
  38. Flannery WP, Reise SP, Yu J. 2001. An empirical comparison of acculturation models. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 27:1035–45 [Google Scholar]
  39. Garcia Coll C, Lamberty G, Jenkins R, McAdoo HP, Crnic K. et al. 1996. An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Dev 67:1891–914Argues for the critical role played by discrimination and prejudice in the development of minority children. [Google Scholar]
  40. Gartner M, Kiang L, Supple A. 2014. Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents. J. Youth Adolesc. 43:1715–27 [Google Scholar]
  41. Gfroerer JC, Tan LL. 2003. Substance use among foreign-born youths in the United States: Does the length of residence matter?. Am. J. Public Health 93:1892–95 [Google Scholar]
  42. Gil AG, Wagner EF, Vega WA. 2000. Acculturation, familism and alcohol use among Latino adolescent males: longitudinal relations. J. Community Psychol. 28:443–58 [Google Scholar]
  43. Goldbach JT, Berger Cardoso J, Cervantes RC, Duan L. 2015. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents. Psychol. Addict. Behav. 29:960–68 [Google Scholar]
  44. Gonzales NA, Coxe S, Roosa MW, White RMB, Knight GP. et al. 2011. Economic hardship, neighborhood context, and parenting: prospective effects on Mexican–American adolescent's mental health. Am. J. Community Psychol. 47:98–113 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gonzales NA, Dumka LE, Millsap RE, Gottschall A, McClain DB. et al. 2012. Randomized trial of a broad preventive intervention for Mexican American adolescents. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 80:1–16 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gonzales NA, Wong JJ, Toomey RB, Millsap R, Dumka LE, Mauricio AM. 2014. School engagement mediates long-term prevention effects for Mexican American adolescents. Prev. Sci. 15:929–39 [Google Scholar]
  47. Goosby BJ, Malone S, Richardson EA, Cheadle JE, Williams DT. 2015. Perceived discrimination and markers of cardiovascular risk among low-income African American youth. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:546–52 [Google Scholar]
  48. Greene ML, Way N, Pahl K. 2006. Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: patterns and psychological correlates. Dev. Psychol. 42:218–36 [Google Scholar]
  49. Han W-J, Huang C-C. 2010. The forgotten treasure: bilingualism and Asian children's emotional and behavioral health. Am. J. Public Health 100:831–38 [Google Scholar]
  50. Harker K. 2001. Immigrant generation, assimilation, and adolescent psychological well-being. Soc. Forces 79:969–1004Reports on the mental health of immigrant versus native-born adolescents in the United States using data from Add Health. [Google Scholar]
  51. Hernandez DJ, Denton NA, Blanchard VL. 2011. Children in the United States of America: a statistical portrait by race-ethnicity, immigrant origins, and language. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 633:102–27 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hou Y, Kim SY, Hazen N, Benner AD. 2017. Parents' perceived discrimination and adolescent adjustment in Chinese American families: mediating family processes. Child Dev 88:317–31 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hou Y, Kim SY, Wang Y. 2016. Parental acculturative stressors and adolescent adjustment through interparental and parent–child relationships in Chinese American families. J. Youth Adolesc. 45:1466–81 [Google Scholar]
  54. Huemer J, Karnik NS, Voelkl-Kernstock S, Granditsch E, Dervic K. et al. 2009. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry Ment. Health 3:13 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hughes D, Hagelskamp C, Way N, Foust MD. 2009. The role of mothers’ and adolescents’ perceptions of ethnic-racial socialization in shaping ethnic-racial identity among early adolescent boys and girls. J. Youth Adolesc. 38:605–26 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hughes D, Rodriguez J, Smith EP, Johnson DJ, Stevenson HC, Spicer P. 2006. Parents' ethnic-racial socialization practices: a review of research and directions for future study. Dev. Psychol. 42:747–70 [Google Scholar]
  57. Juang LP, Alvarez AA. 2010. Discrimination and adjustment among Chinese American adolescents: family conflict and family cohesion as vulnerability and protective factors. Am. J. Public Health 100:2403–9 [Google Scholar]
  58. Juang LP, Shen Y, Kim SY, Wang Y. 2016. Development of an Asian American parental racial–ethnic socialization scale. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 22:417–31 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kam JA, Lazarevic V. 2014. The stressful (and not so stressful) nature of language brokering: identifying when brokering functions as a cultural stressor for Latino immigrant children in early adolescence. J. Youth Adolesc. 43:1994–2011 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kam JA, Marcoulides KM, Merolla AJ. 2017. Using an acculturation-stress-resilience framework to explore latent profiles of Latina/o language brokers. J. Res. Adolesc. 27:842–61 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. 2005. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:593–602 [Google Scholar]
  62. Kia-Keating M, Ellis BH. 2007. Belonging and connection to school in resettlement: young refugees, school belonging, and psychosocial adjustment. Clin. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 12:29–43 [Google Scholar]
  63. Kim SY, Chen Q, Wang Y, Shen Y, Orozco-Lapray D. 2013.a Longitudinal linkages among parent–child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent–child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families. Dev. Psychol. 49:900–12 [Google Scholar]
  64. Kim SY, Gonzales NA, Stroh K, Wang JJ-L. 2006. Parent-child cultural marginalization and depressive symptoms in Asian American family members. J. Community Psychol. 34:167–82 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kim SY, Hou Y, Gonzalez Y. 2017. Language brokering and depressive symptoms in Mexican‐American adolescents: parent–child alienation and resilience as moderators. Child Dev 88:867–81 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kim SY, Wang Y, Deng S, Alvarez R, Li J. 2011. Accent, perpetual foreigner stereotype, and perceived discrimination as indirect links between English proficiency and depressive symptoms in Chinese American adolescents. Dev. Psychol. 47:289–301 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kim SY, Wang Y, Orozco-Lapray D, Shen Y, Murtuza M. 2013.b Does “tiger parenting” exist? Parenting profiles of Chinese Americans and adolescent developmental outcomes. Asian Am. J. Psychol. 4:7–18 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kim SY, Wang Y, Shen Y, Hou Y. 2015. Stability and change in adjustment profiles among Chinese American adolescents: the role of parenting. J. Youth Adolesc. 44:1735–51 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kim SY, Wang Y, Weaver SR, Shen Y, Wu-Seibold N, Liu CH. 2014. Measurement equivalence of the language-brokering scale for Chinese American adolescents and their parents. J. Fam. Psychol. 28:180–92 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kline RB. 2016. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling New York: Guilford Press
  71. Koball H, Capps R, Perreira K, Campetella A, Hooker S. et al. 2015. Health and Social Service Needs of US-Citizen Children with Detained or Deported Immigrant Parents Washington, DC: Urban Inst./Migr. Policy Inst
  72. Kouider EB, Koglin U, Petermann F. 2015. Emotional and behavioral problems in migrant children and adolescents in American countries: a systematic review. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 17:1240–58 [Google Scholar]
  73. Landale NS, Hardie JH, Oropesa RS, Hillemeier MM. 2015. Behavioral functioning among Mexican-origin children: Does parental legal status matter?. J. Health Soc. Behav. 56:2–18 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lara-Cinisomo S, Xue Y, Brooks-Gunn J. 2013. Latino youth's internalising behaviours: links to immigrant status and neighbourhood characteristics. Ethn. Health 18:315–35 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lau AS, Fung JJ, Ho LY, Liu LL, Gudiño OG. 2011. Parent training with high-risk immigrant Chinese families: a pilot group randomized trial yielding practice-based evidence. Behav. Ther. 42:413–26Describes an evidence-based parent training program with Chinese immigrant parents in the United States. [Google Scholar]
  76. Lau AS, McCabe KM, Yeh M, Garland AF, Wood PA, Hough RL. 2005. The acculturation gap-distress hypothesis among high-risk Mexican American families. J. Fam. Psychol. 19:367–75 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lau AS, Tsai W, Shih J, Liu LL, Hwang W-C, Takeuchi DT. 2013. The immigrant paradox among Asian American women: Are disparities in the burden of depression and anxiety paradoxical or explicable?. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 81:901–11 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lee EH, Zhou Q, Ly J, Main A, Tao A, Chen SH. 2014. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 20:202–12 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lewis TT, Cogburn CD, Williams DR. 2015. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 11:407–40 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lincoln AK, Lazarevic V, White MT, Ellis BH. 2016. The impact of acculturation style and acculturative hassles on the mental health of Somali adolescent refugees. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 18:771–78 [Google Scholar]
  81. Liu LL, Lau AS. 2013. Teaching about race/ethnicity and racism matters: an examination of how perceived ethnic racial socialization processes are associated with depression symptoms. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 19:383–94 [Google Scholar]
  82. Liu LL, Lau AS, Chen AC-C, Dinh KT, Kim SY. 2009. The influence of maternal acculturation, neighborhood disadvantage, and parenting on Chinese American adolescents’ conduct problems: testing the segmented assimilation hypothesis. J. Youth Adolesc. 38:691–702 [Google Scholar]
  83. Lopez MH, Passel J, Rohal M. 2015. Modern immigration wave brings 59 million to U.S., driving population growth and change through 2065: views of immigration's impact on U.S. society mixed. Pew Research Center Hispanic Trends Sept 28Describes current demographic trends of immigrants and their children in the United States and projections of future trends.
  84. Lorenzo-Blanco EI, Unger JB, Oshri A, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Soto D. 2016. Profiles of bullying victimization, discrimination, social support, and school safety: links with Latino/a youth acculturation, gender, depressive symptoms, and cigarette use. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 86:37–48 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lui PP. 2015. Intergenerational cultural conflict, mental health, and educational outcomes among Asian and Latino/a Americans: qualitative and meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 141:404–46Meta-analysis of acculturation and its effects on the mental health of children of Asian and Latino immigrants. [Google Scholar]
  86. Luk G, Bialystok E. 2013. Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: interaction between language proficiency and usage. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:605–21 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lustig SL, Kia-Keating M, Knight WG, Geltman P, Ellis H. et al. 2004. Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 43:24–36 [Google Scholar]
  88. Marks AK, Ejesi K, Coll CG. 2014. Understanding the U.S. immigrant paradox in childhood and adolescence. Child Dev. Perspect. 8:59–64 [Google Scholar]
  89. McEwen BS. 2004. Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1032:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  90. Miller GE, Chen E, Parker KJ. 2011. Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychol. Bull. 137:959–97 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mistry RS, Benner AD, Tan CS, Kim SY. 2009. Family economic stress and academic well-being among Chinese-American youth: the influence of adolescents’ perceptions of economic strain. J. Fam. Psychol. 23:279–90 [Google Scholar]
  92. Nair RL, White RMB, Roosa MW, Zeiders KH. 2013. Cultural stressors and mental health symptoms among Mexican Americans: a prospective study examining the impact of the family and neighborhood context. J. Youth Adolesc. 42:1611–23 [Google Scholar]
  93. Neblett EW Jr, Rivas-Drake D, Umaña-Taylor AJ. 2012. The promise of racial and ethnic protective factors in promoting ethnic minority youth development. Child Dev. Perspect. 6:295–303 [Google Scholar]
  94. Nguyen A-MD, Benet-Martínez V. 2013. Biculturalism and adjustment: a meta-analysis. J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. 44:122–59 [Google Scholar]
  95. Ortega J, Huang S, Prado G. 2012. Applying ecodevelopmental theory and the theory of reasoned action to understand HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. Hisp. Health Care Int. 10:42–52 [Google Scholar]
  96. Pantin H, Coatsworth JD, Feaster DJ, Newman FL, Briones E. et al. 2003. Familias Unidas: the efficacy of an intervention to promote parental investment in Hispanic immigrant families. Prev. Sci. 4:189–201 [Google Scholar]
  97. Park IJK, Wang L, Williams DR, Alegría M. 2017. Coping with racism: moderators of the discrimination–adjustment link among Mexican-origin adolescents. Child Dev press. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12856 [Crossref]
  98. Pascoe EA, Smart Richman L. 2009. Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 135:531–54 [Google Scholar]
  99. Passel J, Cohn DV. 2017. Immigration projected to drive growth in U.S. working-age population through at least 2035. Factank: News in the Numbers March 8
  100. Passel JS. 2011. Demography of immigrant youth: past, present, and future. Future Child 21:19–41 [Google Scholar]
  101. Peña JB, Wyman PA, Brown CH, Matthieu MM, Olivares TE. et al. 2008. Immigration generation status and its association with suicide attempts, substance use, and depressive symptoms among Latino adolescents in the USA. Prev. Sci. 9:299–310 [Google Scholar]
  102. Perreira KM, Crosnoe R, Fortuny K, Pedroza J, Ulvestad K. et al. 2012. Barriers to immigrants’ access to health and human services programs ASPE Res. Brief, Off Assist. Secr. Plan. Eval. Washington, DC:
  103. Perreira KM, Gotman N, Isasi CR, Arguelles W, Castañeda SF. et al. 2015. Mental health and exposure to the United States: key correlates from the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latinos. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 203:670–78 [Google Scholar]
  104. Pew Res. Cent 2015. Immigration's impact on past and future U.S. population change. Pew Research Center Hispanic Trends Sept 28
  105. Pierce S. 2015. Unaccompanied child migrants in US communities, immigration court, and schools Policy Brief, Migr. Policy Inst Washington, DC:
  106. Potochnick SR, Perreira KM. 2010. Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 198:470–77 [Google Scholar]
  107. Pottie K, Dahal G, Georgiades K, Premji K, Hassan G. 2015. Do first generation immigrant adolescents face higher rates of bullying, violence and suicidal behaviours than do third generation and native born?. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 17:1557–66 [Google Scholar]
  108. Prado G, Huang S, Maldonado-Molina M, Bandiera F, Schwartz SJ. et al. 2010. An empirical test of ecodevelopmental theory in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. Health Educ. Behav. 37:97–114 [Google Scholar]
  109. Pumariega AJ, Rothe E, Pumariega JB. 2005. Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Ment. Health J. 41:581–97 [Google Scholar]
  110. Rivas-Drake D, Hughes D, Way N. 2009. A preliminary analysis of associations among ethnic racial socialization, ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identity among urban sixth graders. J. Res. Adolesc. 19:558–84 [Google Scholar]
  111. Rivas-Drake D, Syed M, Umaña-Taylor A, Markstrom C, French S. et al. 2014. Feeling good, happy, and proud: a meta-analysis of positive ethnic–racial affect and adjustment. Child Dev 85:77–102Meta-analysis showing the positive effect of ethnic identity on child mental health. [Google Scholar]
  112. Romero AJ, Martinez D, Carvajal SC. 2007. Bicultural stress and adolescent risk behaviors in a community sample of Latinos and non-Latino European Americans. Ethn. Health 12:443–63 [Google Scholar]
  113. Romero AJ, Roberts RE. 2003. Stress within a bicultural context for adolescents of Mexican descent. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 9:171–84 [Google Scholar]
  114. Rosenbloom SR, Way N. 2004. Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth Soc 35:420–51 [Google Scholar]
  115. Roth BJ, Grace BL. 2015. Falling through the cracks: the paradox of post-release services for unaccompanied child migrants. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 58:244–52 [Google Scholar]
  116. Salas-Wright CP, Vaughn MG, Schwartz SJ, Córdova D. 2016. An “immigrant paradox” for adolescent externalizing behavior? Evidence from a national sample. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 51:27–37 [Google Scholar]
  117. Schachter A, Kimbro RT, Gorman BK. 2012. Language proficiency and health status: Are bilingual immigrants healthier?. J. Health Soc. Behav. 53:124–45Demonstrates the positive effect of being bilingual on both physical and mental health. [Google Scholar]
  118. Schofield TJ, Parke RD, Kim Y, Coltrane S. 2008. Bridging the acculturation gap: parent-child relationship quality as a moderator in Mexican American families. Dev. Psychol. 44:1190–94 [Google Scholar]
  119. Schwartz SJ, Unger JB, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Benet-Martínez V, Meca A. et al. 2015.a Longitudinal trajectories of bicultural identity integration in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: links with mental health and family functioning. Int. J. Psychol. 50:440–50 [Google Scholar]
  120. Schwartz SJ, Unger JB, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Zamboanga BL, Córdova D. et al. 2016. Testing the parent–adolescent acculturation discrepancy hypothesis: a five-wave longitudinal study. J. Res. Adolesc. 26:567–86 [Google Scholar]
  121. Schwartz SJ, Unger JB, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Zamboanga BL, Lorenzo-Blanco EI. et al. 2015.b Trajectories of cultural stressors and effects on mental health and substance use among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. J. Adolesc. Health 56:433–39 [Google Scholar]
  122. Schwartz SJ, Unger JB, Lorenzo-Blanco EI, Des Rosiers SE, Villamar JA. et al. 2014. Perceived context of reception among recent Hispanic immigrants: conceptualization, instrument development, and preliminary validation. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 20:1–15 [Google Scholar]
  123. Schwartz SJ, Unger JB, Zamboanga BL, Szapocznik J. 2010. Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research. Am. Psychol. 65:237–51 [Google Scholar]
  124. Smokowski PR, Bacallao M. 2009. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: youth violence prevention for acculturating Latino families. Res. Soc. Work Pract. 19:165–78 [Google Scholar]
  125. Sue S, Okazaki S. 1990. Asian-American educational achievements: a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Am. Psychol. 45:913–20 [Google Scholar]
  126. Takeuchi DT. 2016. Vintage wine in new bottles: infusing select ideas into the study of immigration, immigrants, and mental health. J. Health Soc. Behav. 57:423–35 [Google Scholar]
  127. Takeuchi DT, Zane N, Hong S, Chae DH, Gong F. et al. 2007. Immigration-related factors and mental disorders among Asian Americans. Am. J. Public Health 97:84–90 [Google Scholar]
  128. Telzer EH. 2011. Expanding the acculturation gap-distress model: an integrative review of research. Hum. Dev. 53:313–40 [Google Scholar]
  129. Torres JM, Young M-ED. 2016. A life-course perspective on legal status stratification and health. SSM Popul. Health 2:141–48 [Google Scholar]
  130. Torres L, Driscoll MW, Voell M. 2012. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 18:17–25 [Google Scholar]
  131. Trentacosta CJ, McLear CM, Ziadni MS, Lumley MA, Arfken CL. 2016. Potentially traumatic events and mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees: the roles of relationships with parents and feelings about school. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 86:384–92 [Google Scholar]
  132. Umaña-Taylor AJ, Douglass S, Updegraff KA, Marsiglia FF. 2017. A small-scale randomized efficacy trial of the Identity Project: promoting adolescents' ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution. Child Dev press https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12755 [Crossref]
  133. Umaña-Taylor AJ, O'Donnell M, Knight GP, Roosa MW, Berkel C, Nair R. 2014.a Mexican-origin early adolescents’ ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and psychosocial functioning. Couns. Psychol. 42:170–200 [Google Scholar]
  134. Umaña-Taylor AJ, Quintana SM, Lee RM, Cross WE, Rivas-Drake D. et al. 2014.b Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: an integrated conceptualization. Child Dev 85:21–39 [Google Scholar]
  135. Unger JB, Thing J, Soto DW, Baezconde-Garbanati L. 2014. Associations between ethnic labels and substance use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents in Los Angeles. Subst. Use Misuse 49:1007–16 [Google Scholar]
  136. Vargas ED. 2015. Immigration enforcement and mixed-status families: the effects of risk of deportation on Medicaid use. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 57:83–89 [Google Scholar]
  137. Venkataramani AS, Shah SJ, O'Brien R, Kawachi I, Tsai AC. 2017. Health consequences of the U.S. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study. Lancet Public Health 2:e175–81 [Google Scholar]
  138. Wang Y, Benner AD. 2016. Cultural socialization across contexts: family–peer congruence and adolescent well-being. J. Youth Adolesc. 45:594–611 [Google Scholar]
  139. Weaver SR, Kim SY. 2008. A person-centered approach to studying the linkages among parent-child differences in cultural orientation, supportive parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families. J. Youth Adolesc. 37:36–49 [Google Scholar]
  140. White RMB, Liu Y, Gonzales NA, Knight GP, Tein JY. 2016. Neighborhood qualification of the association between parenting and problem behavior trajectories among Mexican-origin father–adolescent dyads. J. Res. Adolesc. 26:927–46 [Google Scholar]
  141. White RMB, Liu Y, Nair RL, Tein J-Y. 2015. Longitudinal and integrative tests of family stress model effects on Mexican origin adolescents. Dev. Psychol. 51:649–62 [Google Scholar]
  142. White RMB, Roosa MW, Weaver SR, Nair RL. 2009. Cultural and contextual influences on parenting in Mexican American families. J. Marriage Fam. 71:61–79 [Google Scholar]
  143. White RMB, Zeiders KH, Gonzales NA, Tein J-Y, Roosa MW. 2013. Cultural values, U.S. neighborhood danger, and Mexican American parents’ parenting. J. Fam. Psychol. 27:365–75 [Google Scholar]
  144. Williams JL, Aiyer SM, Durkee MI, Tolan PH. 2014. The protective role of ethnic identity for urban adolescent males facing multiple stressors. J. Youth Adolesc. 43:1728–41 [Google Scholar]
  145. Witkow MR, Huynh V, Fuligni AJ. 2015. Understanding differences in college persistence: a longitudinal examination of financial circumstances, family obligations, and discrimination in an ethnically diverse sample. Appl. Dev. Sci. 19:4–18 [Google Scholar]
  146. Yip T. 2015. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents. J. Youth Adolesc. 44:419–30 [Google Scholar]
  147. Zeiders KH, Doane LD, Roosa MW. 2012. Perceived discrimination and diurnal cortisol: examining relations among Mexican American adolescents. Horm. Behav. 61:541–48 [Google Scholar]
  148. Zeiders KH, Hoyt LT, Adam EK. 2014. Associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms among young adults: the moderating role of racial–ethnic minority status. Psychoneuroendocrinology 50:280–88 [Google Scholar]
  149. Zeiders KH, Roosa MW, Knight GP, Gonzales NA. 2013. Mexican American adolescents' profiles of risk and mental health: a person-centered longitudinal approach. J. Adolesc. 36:603–12 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084925
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084925
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error