1932

Abstract

Depression is a common and debilitating condition that adversely affects functioning and the capacity to work and establish economic stability. Women are disproportionately burdened by depression, and low-income pregnant and parenting women have particularly high rates of depression and often lack access to treatment. As depression can be treated, it is a modifiable risk factor for poor economic outcomes for women, and thus for children and families. Recent national and state health care policy changes offer the opportunity for community-based psychological and economic interventions that can reduce the number of pregnant and parenting women with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Moreover, there is strong evidence that in addition to benefiting women's well-being, such reforms bolster children's emotional and social development and learning and help families rise out of poverty. This review summarizes the mental health and economic literature regarding how maternal depression perpetuates intergenerational poverty and discusses recommendations regarding policies to treat maternal depression in large-scale social services systems.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-071219-022710
2021-05-07
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/17/1/annurev-clinpsy-071219-022710.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-071219-022710&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aber JL, Bennett NG, Conley DC, Li J 1997. The effects of poverty on child health and development. Annu. Rev. Public Health 18:463–83
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aber L. 2009. Experiments in 21st century antipoverty policy. Public Policy Res 16:157–63
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andreeva E, Hanson LLM, Westerlund H, Theorell T, Brenner MH 2015. Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. BMC Public Health 15:1045
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Apouey B, Clark AE. 2015. Winning big but feeling no better? The effect of lottery prizes on physical and mental health. Health Econ 24:5516–38
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Aydiner-Avsar N, Piovani C. 2019. The gender impact of unemployment on mental health: a micro analysis for the United States. Forum Soc. Econ. https://doi.org/10.1080/07360932.2018.1535991
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Bailey MJ, Danziger S. 2013. Legacies of the War on Poverty New York: Russell Sage Found.
  7. Banerjee A, Duflo E, Goldberg N, Karlan D, Osei R et al. 2015. A multifaceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor: evidence from six countries. Science 348:62361260799
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bass J, Murray S, Cole G, Bolton P, Poulton C et al. 2016. Economic, social and mental health impacts of an economic intervention for female sexual violence survivors in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Glob. Ment. Health 3:e19
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bee PE, Bower P, Gilbody S, Lovell K 2010. Improving health and productivity of depressed workers: a pilot randomized controlled trial of telephone cognitive behavioral therapy delivery in workplace settings. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 32:3337–40
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Belsky J, Vondra J. 1989. Lessons from child abuse: the determinants of parenting. Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect D Cicchetti, V Carlson 153–202 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bland RC, Stebelsky G, Orn H, Newman SC 1988. Psychiatric disorders and unemployment in Edmonton. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 77:S33872–80
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blane D, Smith GD, Bartley M 1993. Social selection: what does it contribute to social class differences in health?. Sociol. Health Illn. 15:11–15
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bloom D, Michalopoulos C. 2001. How welfare and work policies affect employment and income: a synthesis of research Rep., MDRC New York:
  14. Booshehri LG, Dugan J, Patel F, Bloom S, Chilton M 2018. Trauma-informed Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): a randomized controlled trial with a two-generation impact. J. Child Fam. Stud. 27:51594–604
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Boyd-Swan C, Herbst CM, Ifcher J, Zarghamee H 2016. The earned income tax credit, mental health, and happiness. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 126:18–38
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brenninkmeijer V, Lagerveld SE, Blonk RW, Schaufeli WB, Wijngaards-de Meij LD 2019. Predicting the effectiveness of work-focused CBT for common mental disorders: the influence of baseline self-efficacy, depression and anxiety. J. Occup. Rehabil. 29:131–41
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Brownell MD, Chartier MJ, Nickel NC, Chateau D, Martens PJ et al. 2016. Unconditional prenatal income supplement and birth outcomes. Pediatrics 137:6e20152992
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bruce ML, Takeuchi DT, Leaf PJ 1991. Poverty and psychiatric status: longitudinal evidence from the New Haven Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48:5470–74
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Burns JK. 2015. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci. 24:2107–13
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cambron C, Gringeri C, Vogel-Ferguson MB 2015. Adverse childhood experiences, depression and mental health barriers to work among low-income women. Soc. Work Public Health 30:6504–15
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Casey P, Goolsby S, Berkowitz C, Frank D, Cook J et al. 2004. Maternal depression, changing public assistance, food security, and child health status. Pediatrics 113:2298–304
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Caughy MO, O'Campo PJ, Muntaner C 2003. When being alone might be better: neighborhood poverty, social capital, and child mental health. Soc. Sci. Med. 57:2227–37
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Chant S. 2006. Re‐thinking the “feminization of poverty” in relation to aggregate gender indices. J. Hum. Dev. 7:2201–20
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chase-Lansdale PL, Moffitt RA, Lohman BJ, Cherlin AJ, Coley RL et al. 2003. Mothers' transitions from welfare to work and the well-being of preschoolers and adolescents. Science 299:56121548–52
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ciciolla L, Curlee AS, Luthar SS 2017. What women want: employment preference and adjustment among mothers. J. Fam. Econ. Issues 38:4494–513
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Coley RL, Lohman BJ, Votruba-Drzal E, Pittman LD, Chase-Lansdale PL 2007. Maternal functioning, time, and money: the world of work and welfare. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 29:6721–41
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Conger RD, Donnellan MB. 2007. An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 58:175–99
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Courtin E, Kim S, Song S, Yu W, Muennig P 2020. Can social policies improve health? A systematic review and meta‐analysis of 38 randomized trials. Milbank Q 98:2297–371
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Courtin E, Muennig P, Verma N, Riccio JA, Lagarde M et al. 2018. Conditional cash transfers and health of low-income families in the US: evaluating the Family Rewards experiment. Health Aff 37:3438–46
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Currie J, Stabile M, Manivong P, Roos LL 2010. Child health and young adult outcomes. J. Hum. Resour. 45:3517–48
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Danziger SK, Carlson MJ, Henly JR 2001. Post-welfare employment and psychological well-being. Women Health 32:1–247–78
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Davis O. 2019. What is the relationship between benefit conditionality and mental health? Evidence from the United States on TANF policies. J. Soc. Policy 48:2249–69
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dearing E, Taylor BA, McCartney K 2004. Implications of family income dynamics for women's depressive symptoms during the first 3 years after childbirth. Am. J. Public Health 94:81372–77
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Demirhan B, Demirhan E. 2019. The determinants of female labor force participation: evidence from aggregated and disaggregated panel data of developing countries. Gender and Diversity: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, Vol. 1336–54 Hershey, PA: IGI Glob.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dohrenwend BP, Dohrenwend BS. 1969. Social Status and Psychological Disorder: A Causal Inquiry New York: John Wiley & Sons
  36. Dooley D, Catalano R, Wilson G 1994. Depression and unemployment: panel findings from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Am. J. Community Psychol. 22:6745–65
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dooley D, Prause J. 2002. Mental health and welfare transitions: depression and alcohol abuse in AFDC women. Am. J. Community Psychol. 30:6787–813
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dooley D, Prause J, Ham-Rowbottom KA 2000. Underemployment and depression: longitudinal relationships. J. Health Soc. Behav. 41:4421–36
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Edin K. 2000. What do low-income single mothers say about marriage?. Soc. Probl. 47:1112–33
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Edin K, Kissane RJ. 2010. Poverty and the American family: a decade in review. J. Marriage Fam. 72:3460–79
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Elder GH Jr., Van Nguyen T, Caspi A. 1985. Linking family hardship to children's lives. Child Dev 56:2361–75
    [Google Scholar]
  42. England MJ, Sim LJ, eds. 2009. Associations between depression in parents and parenting, child health, and child psychological functioning. Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention119–81 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Enns JE, Holmqvist M, Wener P, Halas G, Rothney J et al. 2016. Mapping interventions that promote mental health in the general population: a scoping review of reviews. Prev. Med. 87:70–80
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Enns JE, Holmqvist M, Wener P, Rothney J, Halas G et al. 2019. Interventions aimed at reducing poverty for primary prevention of mental illness: a scoping review. Ment. Health Prev. 15:200165
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Evans WN, Garthwaite CL. 2014. Giving mom a break: the impact of higher EITC payments on maternal health. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy 6:2258–90
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Fernald L, Hamad R, Karlan D, Ozer EJ, Zinman J 2008. Small individual loans and mental health: a randomized controlled trial among South African adults. BMC Public Health 8:409
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Finkelstein A, Taubman S, Wright B, Bernstein M, Gruber J et al. (Oregon Health Study Group). 2012. The Oregon health insurance experiment: evidence from the first year. Q. J. Econ. 127:31057–1106
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Forget EL. 2013. New questions, new data, old interventions: the health effects of a guaranteed annual income. Prev. Med. 57:6925–28
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Fournier JC, DeRubeis RJ, Amsterdam J, Shelton RC, Hollon SD 2015. Gains in employment status following antidepressant medication or cognitive therapy for depression. Br. J. Psychiatry 206:4332–38
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Fram MS. 2003. Managing to parent: social support, social capital, and parenting practices among welfare-participating mothers with young children Discuss. Pap. 1263-03 Inst. Res. Poverty, Univ. Wis.-Madison Madison:
  51. Fuller B, Kagan SL. 2000. Remember the Children: Mothers Balance Work and Child Care Under Welfare Reform: Growing Up in Poverty Project 2000, Wave 1 Findings—California, Connecticut, Florida Berkeley: Grad. Sch. Educ.-PACE, Univ. Calif.
  52. Gangopadhyaya A, Blavin F, Gates J, Braga B 2019. Credit where it's due: investigating pathways from EITC expansion to maternal mental health IZA Discuss. Pap. 12233 IZA Inst. Labor Econ. Bonn, Ger: http://ftp.iza.org/dp12233.pdf
  53. Gariépy G, Honkaniemi H, Quesnel-Vallée A 2016. Social support and protection from depression: systematic review of current findings in Western countries. Br. J. Psychiatry 209:4284–93
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Gennetian LA, Miller C. 2002. Children and welfare reform: a view from an experimental welfare program in Minnesota. Child Dev 73:2601–20
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gibson M, Thomson H, Banas K, Lutje V, McKee MJ et al. 2018. Welfare‐to‐work interventions and their effects on the mental and physical health of lone parents and their children. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009820.pub3
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  56. Golin CE, Amola O, Dardick A, Montgomery B, Bishop L et al. 2017. Poverty, personal experiences of violence, and mental health: understanding their complex intersections among low-income women. Poverty in the United States: Women's Voices A O'Leary, PM Frew 63–91 Cham, Switz: Springer Int.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Green EP, Blattman C, Jamison J, Annan J 2016. Does poverty alleviation decrease depression symptoms in post-conflict settings? A cluster-randomized trial of microenterprise assistance in Northern Uganda. Glob. Ment. Health 3:e7
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gugushvili A, Zhao Y, Bukodi E 2019. ‘Falling from grace’ and ‘rising from rags’: intergenerational educational mobility and depressive symptoms. Soc. Sci. Med. 222:294–304
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gupta AE. 2006. Relations of depressive symptoms to employment and income among low-income adults MA Thesis, Univ. Tex Austin:
  60. Gupta AE, Huston AC. 2009. Depressive symptoms and economic outcomes of low‐income women: a review of the social causation, social selection, and interactionist hypotheses. Soc. Issues Policy Rev. 3:1103–40
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hall A, Hickox S, Kuan J, Sung C 2017. Barriers to employment: individual and organizational perspectives. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 35 MR Buckley, AR Wheeler, JRB Halbesleben 243–86 Bingley, UK: Emerald
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hardy B, Smeeding T, Ziliak JP 2018. The changing safety net for low-income parents and their children: structural or cyclical changes in income support policy?. Demography 55:1189–221
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hasin DS, Sarvet AL, Meyers JL, Saha TD, Ruan WJ et al. 2018. Epidemiology of adult DSM-5 major depressive disorder and its specifiers in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry 75:4336–46
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Haushofer J, Fehr E. 2014. On the psychology of poverty. Science 344:862–67
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Haushofer J, Shapiro J. 2016. The short-term impact of unconditional cash transfers to the poor: experimental evidence from Kenya. Q. J. Econ. 131:41973–2042
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hollinghurst S, Peters TJ, Kaur S, Wiles N, Lewis G, Kessler D 2010. Cost-effectiveness of therapist-delivered online cognitive–behavioural therapy for depression: randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiatry 197:4297–304
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Huang J, Sherraden M, Purnell JQ 2014. Impacts of Child Development Accounts on maternal depressive symptoms: evidence from a randomized statewide policy experiment. Soc. Sci. Med. 112:30–38
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hyde JS, Mezulis AH. 2020. Gender differences in depression: biological, affective, cognitive, and sociocultural factors. Harvard Rev. Psychiatry 28:14–13
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Jagannathan R, Camasso MJ, Sambamoorthi U 2010. Experimental evidence of welfare reform impact on clinical anxiety and depression levels among poor women. Soc. Sci. Med. 71:1152–60
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Jayakody R, Stauffer D. 2000. Mental health problems among single mothers: implications for work and welfare reform. J. Soc. Issues 56:4617–34
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kessler RC. 2003. Epidemiology of women and depression. J. Affect. Disord. 74:15–13
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D et al. 2003. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289:233095–105
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kessler RC, Turner JB, House JS 1989. Unemployment, reemployment, and emotional functioning in a community sample. Am. Sociol. Rev. 54:4648–57
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Krueger AB, Mueller A. 2011. Job search, emotional well-being, and job finding in a period of mass unemployment: evidence from high-frequency longitudinal data. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity https://www.brookings.edu/bpea-articles/job-search-emotional-well-being-and-job-finding-in-a-period-of-mass-unemployment-evidence-from-high-frequency-longitudinal-data/
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lagerveld SE, Blonk RW, Brenninkmeijer V, Wijngaards-de Meij L, Schaufeli WB 2012. Work-focused treatment of common mental disorders and return to work: a comparative outcome study. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 17:2220–34
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lerner D, Henke RM. 2008. What does research tell us about depression, job performance, and work productivity?. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 50:4401–10
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Lindhorst T, Mancoske RJ. 2006. The social and economic impact of sanctions and time limits on recipients of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. J. Sociol. Soc. Welf. 33:193–114
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Lindqvist E, Östling R, Cesarini D 2020. Long-run effects of lottery wealth on psychological well-being. Rev. Econ. Stud. https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdaa006
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  79. London AS, Scott EK, Edin K, Hunter V 2004. Welfare reform, work-family tradeoffs, and child well-being. Fam. Relat. 53:2148–58
    [Google Scholar]
  80. López-López JA, Kwong AS, Washbrook E, Pearson RM, Tilling K et al. 2020. Trajectories of depressive symptoms and adult educational and employment outcomes. BJPsych Open 6:1e6
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lorant V, Deliège D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M 2003. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 157:298–112
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ, Kakuma R, Corrigall J et al. 2010. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. Soc. Sci. Med. 71:3517–28
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Lundberg S, Pollak RA. 2007. The American family and family economics. J. Econ. Perspect. 21:23–26
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Luthar SS, Ciciolla L. 2015. Who mothers mommy? Factors that contribute to mothers’ well-being. Dev. Psychol. 51:121812–23
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Mani A, Mullainathan S, Shafir E, Zhao J 2013. Poverty impedes cognitive function. Science 341:6149976–80
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Marcus M, Yasamy MT, van Ommeren M, Chisholm D, Saxena S 2012. Depression: a global public health concern Rep., WHO Dep. Ment. Health Subst. Abus Geneva: https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/who_paper_depression_wfmh_2012.pdf
  87. Martínez PG, Blanco C, Wall MM, Liu SM, Olfson M 2020. Sex differences on the relation between major depressive disorder and labor market outcomes: a national prospective study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 124:144–50
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Mascaro N, Arnette NC, Santana CM, Kaslow NJ 2007. Longitudinal relations between employment and depressive symptoms in low‐income, suicidal African American women. J. Clin. Psychol. 63:6541–53
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Mayer SE. 1997. What Money Can't Buy: Family Income and Children's Life Chances Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  90. McEwen BS. 2003. Mood disorders and allostatic load. Biol. Psychiatry 54:3200–7
    [Google Scholar]
  91. McEwen BS, Nasca C, Gray JD 2015. Stress effects on neuronal structure: hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 41:13–23
    [Google Scholar]
  92. McEwen BS, Stellar E. 1993. Stress and the individual: mechanisms leading to disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 153:2093–101
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Milligan K, Stabile M. 2011. Do child tax benefits affect the well-being of children? Evidence from Canadian child benefit expansions. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy 3:3175–205
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Miranda JJ, Patel V. 2005. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Does mental health play a role?. PLOS Med 2:10e291
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Mojtabai R, Stuart EA, Hwang I, Susukida R, Eaton WW et al. 2015. Long-term effects of mental disorders on employment in the National Comorbidity Survey ten-year follow-up. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 50:111657–68
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Moore THM, Kapur N, Hawton K, Richards A, Metcalfe C, Gunnell D 2017. Interventions to reduce the impact of unemployment and economic hardship on mental health in the general population: a systematic review. Psychol. Med. 47:61062–84
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Morris PA. 2008. Welfare program implementation and parents’ depression. Soc. Serv. Rev. 82:4579–614
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Mossakowski KN. 2009. The influence of past unemployment duration on symptoms of depression among young women and men in the United States. Am. J. Public Health 99:101826–32
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Moussavi S, Chatterji S, Verdes E, Tandon A, Patel V, Ustun B 2007. Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys. Lancet 370:9590851–58
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Mueser P, Troske KR. 2003. Welfare reform and its effect on the dynamics of welfare receipt, employment, and earnings Rep., Employ. Policies Inst Washington, DC:
  101. Nasca C, Davis E, Bigio B, Sandi C, McEwen BS 2017. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain and behavior. Hormones, Brain and Behavior DW Pfaff, M Joëls 443–63 Oxford, UK: Academic. , 3rd. ed.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Nieuwenhuijsen K, Faber B, Verbeek JH, Neumeyer‐Gromen A, Hees HL et al. 2014. Interventions to improve return to work in depressed people. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006237.pub3
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  103. Noonan K, Corman H, Reichman NE 2016. Effects of maternal depression on family food insecurity. Econ. Hum. Biol. 22:201–15
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Olesen SC, Butterworth P, Leach LS, Kelaher M, Pirkis J 2013. Mental health affects future employment as job loss affects mental health: findings from a longitudinal population study. BMC Psychiatry 13:144
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Oliker SJ. 1995. The proximate contexts of workfare and work: a framework for studying poor women's economic choices. Sociol. Q. 36:2251–72
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Ozer EJ, Fernald L, Weber A, Flynn EP, VanderWeele TJ 2011. Does alleviating poverty affect mothers’ depressive symptoms? A quasi-experimental investigation of Mexico's Oportunidades programme. Int. J. Epidemiol. 40:61565–76
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Pak TY. 2020. Welfare stigma as a risk factor for major depressive disorder: evidence from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. J. Affect. Disord. 260:53–60
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Pascoe JM, Stolfi A, Ormond MB 2006. Correlates of mothers’ persistent depressive symptoms: a national study. J. Pediatr. Health Care 20:4261–69
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Patel V, Saxena S, Lund C, Thornicroft G, Baingana F et al. 2018. The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development. Lancet 392:101571553–98
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Pavetti L, Olson K, Pindus N, Pernas M 1996. Designing welfare-to-work programs for families facing personal or family challenges: lessons from the field Rep., Urban Inst Washington, DC:
  111. Perry RE, Finegood ED, Braren SH, Dejoseph ML, Putrino DF et al. 2019. Developing a neurobehavioral animal model of poverty: drawing cross-species connections between environments of scarcity-adversity, parenting quality, and infant outcome. Dev. Psychopathol. 31:2399–418
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Pierce JR, Schott PK. 2020. Trade liberalization and mortality: evidence from US counties. Am. Econ. Rev. Insights 2:147–64
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Pieters J, Klasen S. 2020. Randomization for women's economic empowerment? Lessons and limitations of randomized experiments. World Dev 127:104820
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Platt J, Prins S, Bates L, Keyes K 2016. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders. Soc. Sci. Med. 149:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Polit DF, London AS, Martinez JM 2001. The health of poor urban women: findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change Rep., MDRC New York:
  116. Pronyk PM, Harpham T, Busza J, Phetla G, Morison LA et al. 2008. Can social capital be intentionally generated? A randomized trial from rural South Africa. Soc Sci Med 67:101559–70
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Quint JC. 1994. New chance: interim findings on a comprehensive program for disadvantaged young mothers and their children WWC Interv. Rep., U.S. Dep. Educ Washington, DC:
  118. Radey M, McWey L, Cui M 2020. Psychological distress among low-income mothers: the role of public and private safety nets. Women Health 60:6692–706
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Raver C. 2003. Does work pay psychologically as well as economically? The role of employment in predicting depressive symptoms and parenting among low‐income families. Child Dev 74:61720–36
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Ribeiro WS, Bauer A, Andrade MCR, York-Smith M, Pan PM et al. 2017. Income inequality and mental illness-related morbidity and resilience: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 4:7554–62
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Riccio JA, Dechausay N, Greenberg DM, Miller C, Rucks Z, Verma N 2010. Toward reduced poverty across generations: early findings from New York City's conditional cash transfer program Rep., MDRC New York:
  122. Richard JY, Lee H-S. 2019. A qualitative study of racial minority single mothers’ work experiences. J. Couns. Psychol. 66:2143–57
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Ridley M, Rao G, Vikram P, Schilbach F 2019. Poverty and mental illness: causal evidence Work. Pap., MIT/Harvard Univ Cambridge, MA:
  124. Rohe WM, Key C, Grinstein-Weiss M, Schreiner M, Sherraden M 2017. The impacts of individual development accounts, assets, and debt on future orientation and psychological depression. J. Policy Pract. 16:124–45
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Samuels F, Stavropoulou M. 2016. ‘Being able to breathe again’: the effects of cash transfer programmes on psychosocial wellbeing. J. Dev. Stud. 52:1099–114
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Schless AP, Schwartz L, Goetz C, Mendels J 1974. How depressives view the significance of life events. Br. J. Psychiatry 125:587406–10
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Schofield TJ, Martin MJ, Conger KJ, Neppl TM, Donnellan MB, Conger RD 2011. Intergenerational transmission of adaptive functioning: a test of the interactionist model of SES and human development. Child Dev 82:133–47
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Scott KM, Lim C, Al-Hamzawi A, Alonso J, Bruffaerts R et al. 2016. Association of mental disorders with subsequent chronic physical conditions: world mental health surveys from 17 countries. JAMA Psychiatry 73:2150–58
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Seedat S, Scott KM, Angermeyer MC, Berglund P, Bromet EJ et al. 2009. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 66:7785–95
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Shaefer HL, Collyer S, Duncan G, Edin K, Garfinkel I et al. 2018. A universal child allowance: a plan to reduce poverty and income instability among children in the United States. RSF 4:222–42
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Silva M, Loureiro A, Cardoso G 2016. Social determinants of mental health: a review of the evidence. Eur. J. Psychiatry 30:4259–92
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Simon D, McInerney M, Goodell S 2018. The Earned Income Tax Credit, poverty, and health Policy Brief, Health Aff Bethesda, MD:
  133. Simon GE, Barber C, Birnbaum HG, Frank RG, Greenberg PE et al. 2001. Depression and work productivity: the comparative costs of treatment versus nontreatment. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 43:12–9
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Slack KS, Magnuson KA, Berger LM, Yoo J, Coley RL et al. 2007. Family economic well-being following the 1996 welfare reform: trend data from five non-experimental panel studies. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 29:6698–720
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Smith MV, Callinan LS, Posner CS, Holmes SC, Ebling R 2021. Improving maternal mental health as a pathway to economic mobility in the TANF system. Psychiatr. Serv In press
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Thornicroft G, Patel V. 2014. Including mental health among the new sustainable development goals. BMJ 349:g5189
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Tirumalaraju V, Suchting R, Evans J, Goetzl L, Refuerzo J et al. 2020. Risk of depression in the adolescent and adult offspring of mothers with perinatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw. Open 3:6e208783
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Topitzes J, Mersky JP, Mueller DJ, Bacalso E, Williams C 2019. Implementing trauma screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (T‐SBIRT) within employment services: a feasibility trial. Am. J. Community Psychol. 64:3–4298–309
    [Google Scholar]
  139. UNESCO 2019. Poverty. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/poverty
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Van Parijs P. 2004. Basic income: a simple and powerful idea for the twenty-first century. Politics Soc 32:17–39
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Wadsworth ME, Achenbach TM. 2005. Explaining the link between low socioeconomic status and psychopathology: testing two mechanisms of the social causation hypothesis. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 73:61146–53
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Washbrook E, Gregg P, Propper C 2014. A decomposition analysis of the relationship between parental income and multiple child outcomes. J. R. Stat. Soc. A 177:4757–82
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Weissman MM, Paykel ES, Siegel R, Klerman GL 1971. The social role performance of depressed women: comparisons with a normal group. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 41:3390–405
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Whooley MA, Kiefe CI, Chesney MA, Markovitz JH, Matthews K, Hulley SB 2002. Depressive symptoms, unemployment, and loss of income: the CARDIA study. Arch. Intern. Med. 162:222614–20
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Wolfe B, Jakubowski J, Haveman R, Courey M 2012. The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians. Demography 49:2499–524
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Wood D. 2003. Effect of child and family poverty on child health in the United States. Pediatrics 112:Suppl. 3707–11
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Ybarra M, Noyes JL. 2019. Program and economic outcomes by TANF work exemption status. J. Soc. Soc. Work Res. 10:197–125
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Yeung WJ, Linver MR, Brooks-Gunn J 2002. How money matters for young children's development: parental investment and family processes. Child Dev 73:61861–79
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Yoshikawa H, Weisner TS, Lowe ED 2006. Making It Work: Low-Wage Employment, Family Life, and Child Development New York: Russell Sage Found.
  150. Zabkiewicz D, Schmidt LA. 2007. Behavioral health problems as barriers to work: results from a 6-year panel study of welfare recipients. J. Behav. Health Serv. Res. 34:2168–85
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Zaslow MJ, Hair EC, Dion MR, Ahluwalia SK, Sargent J 2001. Maternal depressive symptoms and low literacy as potential barriers to employment in a sample of families receiving welfare: Are there two-generational implications?. Women Health 32:3211–51
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Zaslow MJ, Jekielek SM, Gallagher M 2005. Work-family mismatch through a child development lens. Work, Family, Health, and Well-Being SM Bianchi, LM Casper, RB King 255–74 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF. 2006. Income inequality and physical and mental health: testing associations consistent with proposed causal pathways. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60:6513–21
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-071219-022710
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-071219-022710
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error