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Abstract

This review considers two themes. The first section describes the influence of two temperamental biases detectable in infants that render children vulnerable to maladaptive behavior if the rearing environment invites such responses. Infants who display high levels of limb activity and crying in response to unexpected events are likely to be shy and fearful as children and are at risk for an anxiety disorder. Infants who display little limb movement and crying are susceptible to assuming risks and vulnerable to asocial behavior if the rearing environment invites these actions. The second section criticizes three common research practices: failure to examine patterns of measures for predictors and outcomes, an indifference to the power of the setting on the evidence recorded, and the distortions that semantic terms in questionnaires impose on replies.

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2022-05-09
2024-06-21
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