1932

Abstract

This article highlights the invisible power those in racial and gendered privilege continue to hold in the contemporary United States and the harmful psychological effects of this power on both those it oppresses and, importantly, those who wield it. A lack of empathy and an inability for compassion arise in individuals holding sociopolitical and cultural power, and we highlight how this psychological condition is qualifiable as psychosis and question why it has not been discussed as such in the literature until now. We also, however, bring attention to the invisible psychological power that marginalized populations in the United States hold, invisible because it has been left largely unrecognized by mainstream cultural forces. By centering the ways American cultural minorities successfully navigate multiply oppressive structural systems, we conclude with a reflection on how intersectional feminism can offer a philosophical lens through which to mitigate the unhealthy developmental outcomes and effects of White heteronormative male power.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-072220-015724
2022-05-09
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/18/1/annurev-clinpsy-072220-015724.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-072220-015724&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ahmed S. 2017. Living a Feminist Life Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amir D, McAuliffe K. 2020. Cross-cultural, developmental psychology: integrating approaches and key insights. Evol. Hum. Behav. 41:5430–44
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anholt S. 2014. Which Country Does the Most Good? TED Talks. http://www.ted.com/talks/simon_anholt_which_country_does_the_most_good_for_the_world
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anzaldúa G. 1987. Movimientos de rebeldía y las culturas que traicionan. Race/Ethnicity Multidiscip. Glob. Contexts. 4:11–7
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barr JJ, Higgins-D'Alessandro A. 2007. Adolescent empathy and prosocial behavior in the multidimensional context of school culture. J. Genet. Psychol. 168:3231–50
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bauer AG, Christensen K, Bowe-Thompson C, Lister S, Aduloju-Ajijola N, Berkley-Patton J. 2020.. “ We are our own counselor”: resilience, risk behaviors, and mental health service utilization among young African American men. Behav. Med. 46:3–4278–89
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beattie P. 2019. The road to psychopathology: neoliberalism and the human mind. J. Soc. Issues 75:189–112
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Benton L. 1996. From the world-systems perspective to institutional world history: culture and economy in global theory. J. World Hist. 7:2261–95
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bronfenbrenner U. 1979. The Ecology of Human Development Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Carlo G, Randall BA 2002. The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. J. Youth Adolesc. 31:131–44
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Case A, Deaton A 2015. Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among White non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century. PNAS 112:4915078–83
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cole T. 2016. Known and Strange Things: Essays New York: Random House
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cook K. 2012. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents’ experience of the transition from welfare to work. Health 16:5507–30
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Crenshaw K. 1989. Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: a Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. Univ. Chicago Legal Forum 1:8139–67
    [Google Scholar]
  15. de Guzman MRT, Do KA, Kok C 2014. The cultural contexts of children's prosocial behaviors. Prosocial Development: A Multidimensional Approach LM Padilla-Walker, G Carlo 221–41 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Dias JJ, Whitaker RC. 2013. Black mothers’ perceptions about urban neighborhood safety and outdoor play for their preadolescent daughters. J. Health Care Poor Underserved 24:1206–19
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Driskill Q. 2016. Asegi Stories: Cherokee Queer and Two-Spirit Memory Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eddy B. 2019. Why We Elect Narcissists and SociopathsAnd How We Can Stop! Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Evans SY, Bell K, Burton NK. 2017. Black Women's Mental Health: Balancing Strength and Vulnerability Albany: SUNY Press
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Farrell AH, Vaillancourt T. 2020. Bullying perpetration and narcissistic personality traits across adolescence: joint trajectories and childhood risk factors. Front. Psychiatry 11:483229
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ferguson RA. 2003. Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Color Critique Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Frausel R, Velez G, Mandviwala T, Kubota J 2022. Cultivating empathy in high school students through the story exchange. J. Charact. Educ. 18:1 In press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Goode J, Eames E 1996. An anthropological critique of the culture of poverty. Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City G Gmelch, W Zenner 405–17 Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gopinath G. 2005. Impossible Desires: Queer Diasporas and South Asian Public Cultures Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Greene J. 2018. Trump as constitutional failure. Indiana Law J 93:1,793–109
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Griffin SM. 2017. Trump, trust, and the future of the constitutional order. Md. Law Rev. 77:1161–80
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hall S, Winlow S, Ancrum C. 2008. Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture: Crime, Exclusion and the New Culture of Narcissism New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Halley J, Eshleman A, Vijaya RM 2011. Seeing White: An Introduction to White Privilege and Race Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hamad R. 2020. White Tears/Brown Scars: How White Feminism Betrays Women of Color New York: Catapult
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hampden-Thompson G. 2013. Family policy, family structure, and children's educational achievement. Soc. Sci. Res. 42:3804–17
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hemmings C. 2011. Why Stories Matter: The Political Grammar of Feminist Theory Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jahoda G. 2012. Critical reflections on some recent definitions of “culture. .” Cult. Psychol. 18:3289–303
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kafer A. 2013. Feminist, Queer, Crip Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kendall M. 2020. Hood Feminism: Notes from the Women that a Movement Forgot New York: Penguin
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Krumov K. 2013. Cross-Cultural Psychology: Why Culture Matters Charlotte, NC: Information Age
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lewis O. 1966. The culture of poverty. Sci. Am. 215:419–25
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Magnuson D, Jansson M, Benoit C 2021. The Experience of Emerging Adulthood Among Street-Involved Youth Cambridge, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mandviwala T. 2020. Private revolutions of second-generation Muslim American women. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 35:26–30
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Marks AK, Woolverton GA, Coll CG. 2020. Risk and resilience in minority youth populations. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 16:151–63
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Masten AS. 2013. Risk and resilience in development. The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology, Vol. 2: Self and Other PD Zelazo 579–607 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  41. McIlwain D 2003. Bypassing empathy: a Machiavellian theory of mind and sneaky power. Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development (Macquarie Monographs in Cognitive Science) B Repacholi, V Slaughter 39–66 Hove, UK: Psychology Press
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Menon U 2002. Neither victim nor rebel: feminism and the morality of gender and family life in a Hindu temple town. Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge in Liberal Democracies RA Shweder, HR Markus, M Minow 288–308 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Metzl J. 2019. Dying of Whiteness: How the Politics of Racial Resentment Is Killing America's Heartland New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Mohanty C. 1988. Under Western eyes: feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. Boundary 2:333–58
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Moynihan D. 1965. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action Washington, DC: Off. Policy Plan. Res., US Dep. Labor
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Mueller JC, Schmidt S. 2020. Revisiting culture and meaning-making in world-systems analysis: a proposal for engaging with the cultural political economy approach. Crit. Sociol. 46:4–5711–28
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Muñoz JE. 1999. Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Oluo I. 2020. Mediocre: The Dangerous Legacy of White Male America New York: Seal Press
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Ortiz AT, Briggs L. 2003. The culture of poverty, crack babies, and welfare cheats: the making of the “healthy white baby crisis. .” Soc. Text 21:339–57
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Panter-Brick C 2015. Culture and resilience: next steps for theory and practice. Youth Resilience and Culture: Commonalities and Complexities, Vol. 11: Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology L Theron, L Liebenberg, M Ungar 233–44 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Plaut VC, Garnett FG, Buffardi LE, Sanchez-Burks J. 2011.. “ What about me?” Perceptions of exclusion and Whites’ reactions to multiculturalism. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 101:2337–53
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Ritter K, Dziobek I, Preißler S, Rüter A, Vater A et al. 2011. Lack of empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 187:1–2241–47
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Said E. 1978. Orientalism New York: Pantheon Books
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Schutte O 2020. Crossroads and in-between spaces: a meditation on Anzaldúa and beyond. Theories of the Flesh: Latinx and Latin American Feminisms, Transformation, and Resistance A Pitts, M Ortega, J Medina123–34 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Shweder R. 2003. Why Do Men Barbecue? Recipes for Cultural Psychology Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Simons D, Wurtele SK, Heil P. 2002. Childhood victimization and lack of empathy as predictors of sexual offending against women and children. J. Interpers. Violence 17:121291–307
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Small M, Harding D, Lamont M 2010. Reconsidering culture and poverty. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 629:16–27
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Spencer MB 2006. Phenomenology and ecological systems theory: development of diverse groups. Handbook of Child Psychology: Theoretical Models of Human Development W Damon, RM Lerner 829–93 Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Spencer MB, Dupree D, Hartmann T. 1997. A phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST): a self-organization perspective in context. Dev. Psychopathol. 9:4817–33
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Stack C. 1974. All Our Kin: Strategies for Survival in a Black Community New York: Harper & Row
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Sum NL, Jessop B 2015. Cultural political economy and critical policy studies: developing a critique of domination. Handbook of Critical Policy Studies F Fischer, D Torgerson, A Durnová, M Orsini 128–50 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Tanaka GK. 2003. The Intercultural Campus: Transcending Culture & Power in American Higher Education New York: P. Lang
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Tettegah S 2016. The good, the bad, and the ugly: color-blind racial ideology and lack of empathy. The Myth of Racial Color Blindness: Manifestations, Dynamics, and Impact HA Neville, ME Gallardo, DW Sue 175–90 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Theron LC, Malindi MJ 2010. Resilient street youth: a qualitative South African study. J. Youth Stud. 13:671736
    [Google Scholar]
  65. van Hazebroek BCM, Olthof T, Goossens FA 2016. Predicting aggression in adolescence: the interrelation between (a lack of) empathy and social goals. Aggress. Behav. 43:2204–14
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Velez G, Spencer MB. 2018. Phenomenology and intersectionality: using PVEST as a frame for adolescent identity formation amid intersecting ecological systems of inequality. New Dir. Child Adolesc. Dev. 2018 16175–90
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Violante AE, Cain KM, Mukherjee S 2020. What does it mean to be American? Perceptions of national identity among adults and children. Int. J. Intercult. Relat. 78:53–64
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Wade R, Shea J, Rubin D, Wood J 2014. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth. Pediatrics 134:113–20
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Wang Y-W, Davidson MM, Yakushko OF, Savoy HB, Tan JA, Bleier JK. 2003. The scale of ethnocultural empathy: development, validation, and reliability. J. Couns. Psychol. 50:2221–34
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ware V. 2006. Info-war and the politics of feminist curiosity. Cult. Stud. 20:6526–51
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Wilcox L, Larson K, Bartlett R. 2021. The role of resilience in ethnic minority adolescent navigation of ecological adversity. J. Child Adolesc. Trauma 14:50715
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Wilkerson I. 2020. Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents New York: Random House. , 1st ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Wilson AD, Hendriksen RC, Bustamante R, Irby B. 2016. Successful Black men from absent-father homes and their resilient single mothers: a phenomenological study. J. Multicult. Couns. Dev 44:3189–208
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-072220-015724
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error