1932

Abstract

While boys and men have historically been underrepresented in eating disorder research, increasing interest and research during the twenty-first century have contributed important knowledge to the field. In this article, we review the epidemiology of eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia (the pathological pursuit of muscularity) in boys and men; specific groups of men at increased risk for eating disorders; sociocultural, psychological, and biological vulnerability factors; and male-specific assessment measures. We also provide an overview of current research on eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia prevention efforts, treatment outcomes, and mortality risk in samples of boys and men. Priorities for future research are including boys and men in epidemiological studies to track changes in incidence, identifying (neuro)biological factors contributing to risk, eliminating barriers to treatment access and utilization, and refining male-specific prevention and treatment efforts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-080921-074125
2023-05-09
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/19/1/annurev-clinpsy-080921-074125.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-080921-074125&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abdulkadir M, Hübel C, Herle M, Loos R, Breen G et al. 2022. The impact of anorexia nervosa and BMI polygenic risk on childhood growth: a 20-year longitudinal population-based study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 109:1242–54
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ackerman KE, Stellingwerff T, Elliott-Sale KJ, Baltzell A, Cain M et al. 2020. #REDS (Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport): time for a revolution in sports culture and systems to improve athlete health and performance. Br. J. Sports Med. 54:369–70
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Agüera Z, Sánchez I, Granero R, Riesco N, Steward T et al. 2017. Short-term treatment outcomes and dropout risk in men and women with eating disorders. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 25:293–301
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Allen KL, Byrne SM, Oddy WH, Crosby RD. 2013. DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 eating disorders in adolescents: prevalence, stability, and psychosocial correlates in a population-based sample of male and female adolescents. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:720–32
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Almeida M, Brown TA, Campos PF, Amaral ACS, de Carvalho PHB. 2021. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention delivered in-person after an online training: a randomized controlled trial for Brazilian men with body dissatisfaction. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 54:293–304
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Altwaijri YA, Al-Subaie AS, Al-Habeeb A, Bilal L, Al-Desouki M et al. 2020. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the Saudi National Mental Health Survey. Int. J. Methods Psychiatr. Res. 29:e1836
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Arlington, VA: Am. Psychiatr. Publ., 5th ed..
  8. Avila JT, Golden NH, Aye T. 2019. Eating disorder screening in transgender youth. J. Adolesc. Health 65:815–17
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bagaric M, Touyz S, Heriseanu A, Conti J, Hay P. 2020. Are bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder increasing? Results of a population-based study of lifetime prevalence and lifetime prevalence by age in South Australia. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 28:260–68
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bardone-Cone AM, Johnson S, Raney TJ, Zucker N, Watson HJ, Bulik CM. 2019. Eating disorder recovery in men: a pilot study. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 52:1370–79
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Barlett CP, Vowels CL, Saucier DA. 2008. Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men's body-image concerns. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 27:279–310
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bean P, Loomis CC, Timmel P, Hallinan P, Moore S et al. 2004. Outcome variables for anorexic males and females one year after discharge from residential treatment. J. Addict. Dis. 23:83–94
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Becker CB, Stice E. 2017. From efficacy to effectiveness to broad implementation: evolution of the Body Project. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 85:767–82
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bird EL, Halliwell E, Diedrichs PC, Harcourt D 2013. Happy Being Me in the UK: a controlled evaluation of a school-based body image intervention with pre-adolescent children. Body Image 10:326–34
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Björk T, Wallin K, Pettersen G. 2012. Male experiences of life after recovery from an eating disorder. Eat. Disord. 20:460–68
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Blashill AJ. 2011. Gender roles, eating pathology, and body dissatisfaction in men: a meta-analysis. Body Image 8:1–11
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Blashill AJ, Grunewald W, Fang A, Davidson E, Wilhelm S 2020. Conformity to masculine norms and symptom severity among men diagnosed with muscle dysmorphia versus body dysmorphic disorder. PLOS ONE 15:e0237651
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Blashill AJ, Safren SA, Wilhelm S, Jampel J, Taylor SW et al. 2017. Cognitive behavioral therapy for body image and self-care (CBT-BISC) in sexual minority men living with HIV: a randomized controlled trial. Health Psychol. 36:937–46
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bomben R, Robertson N, Allan S 2022. Barriers to help-seeking for eating disorders in men: a mixed-methods systematic review. Psychol. Men Masc. 23:183–96
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brown TA, Forney KJ, Klein KM, Grillot CL, Keel PK. 2020. A 30-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating pathology across women and men from late adolescence to later midlife. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 129:376–86
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Brown TA, Forney KJ, Pinner D, Keel PK. 2017. A randomized controlled trial of The Body Project: More Than Muscles for men with body dissatisfaction. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 50:873–83
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Brown TA, Keel PK. 2015a. A randomized controlled trial of a peer co-led dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program for gay men. Behav. Res. Ther. 74:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Brown TA, Keel PK. 2015b. Relationship status predicts lower restrictive eating pathology for bisexual and gay men across 10-year follow-up. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 48:700–7
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Bunnell DW 2021. Psychotherapy with men with eating disorders: the influence of gender socialization and masculine gender norms on engagement and treatment. Eating Disorders in Boys and Men JM Nagata, TA Brown, SB Murray, JM Lavender 197–213. Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Burns T, Crisp AH. 1984. Outcome of anorexia nervosa in males. Br. J. Psychiatry 145:319–25
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Campagna JD, Bowsher B. 2016. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and muscle dysmorphia among entry-level military personnel. Mil. Med. 181:494–501
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Carta MG, Preti A, Moro MF, Aguglia E, Balestrieri M et al. 2014. Eating disorders as a public health issue: prevalence and attributable impairment of quality of life in an Italian community sample. Int. Rev. Psychiatry 26:486–92
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chua SN, Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, Austin SB, Wilfley DE, Taylor CB. 2022. Estimated prevalence of eating disorders in Malaysia based on a diagnostic screen. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 55:763–75
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Compte EJ, Sepulveda AR, Torrente F. 2015. A two-stage epidemiological study of eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia in male university students in Buenos Aires. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 48:1092–101
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cooper M, Griffiths KM, Burns R. 2020. Getting shredded: development and validation of a measure of muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Psychol. Assess. 32:451–60
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Crisp A, Gowers S, Joughin N, McClelland L, Rooney B et al. 2006. Death, survival and recovery in anorexia nervosa: a thirty five year study. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 14:168–75
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Culbert KM, Breedlove SM, Burt SA, Klump KL. 2008. Prenatal hormone exposure and risk for eating disorders: a comparison of opposite-sex and same-sex twins. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 65:329–36
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Culbert KM, Breedlove SM, Sisk CL, Burt SA, Klump KL. 2013. The emergence of sex differences in risk for disordered eating attitudes during puberty: a role for prenatal testosterone exposure. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:420–32
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Culbert KM, Breedlove SM, Sisk CL, Keel PK, Neale MC et al. 2015. Age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: developmental windows of expression?. Behav. Neurosci. 129:18–36
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Culbert KM, Burt SA, Klump KL. 2017. Expanding the developmental boundaries of etiologic effects: the role of adrenarche in genetic influences on disordered eating in males. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 126:593–606
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Culbert KM, Burt SA, Sisk C, Nigg JT, Klump KL. 2014. The effects of circulating testosterone and pubertal maturation on risk for disordered eating symptoms in adolescent males. Psychol. Med. 44:2271–86
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Deloitte Access Econ 2020. Social and economic cost of eating disorders in the United States of America: report for the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders and the Academy for Eating Disorders Rep. Deloitte Access Econ. Sydney, Aust: https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1267/2020/07/Social-Economic-Cost-of-Eating-Disorders-in-US.pdf
  38. Deter H, Köpp W, Zipfel S, Herzog W. 1998. Male anorexia nervosa patients in long-term follow-up. Nervenarzt 69:419–26
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dinkler L, Yasumitsu-Lovell K, Eitoku M, Fujieda M, Suganuma N et al. 2022. Development of a parent-reported screening tool for avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID): initial validation and prevalence in 4–7-year-old Japanese children. Appetite 168:105735
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Doley JR, McLean SA, Griffiths S, Yager Z. 2020. Study protocol for Goodform—a classroom-based intervention to enhance body image and prevent doping and supplement use in adolescent boys. BMC Public Health 20:59
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Doley JR, McLean SA, Griffiths S, Yager Z. 2021. Designing body image and eating disorder prevention programs for boys and men: theoretical, practical, and logistical considerations from boys, parents, teachers, and experts. Psychol. Men Masc. 22:124–34
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Fairburn CG, Beglin SJ. 1994. Assessment of eating disorders: interview or self-report questionnaire?. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 16:363–70
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Farber R. 2017.. ‘ Transing’ fitness and remapping transgender male masculinity in online message boards. J. Gend. Stud. 26:254–68
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Feldman MB, Meyer IH. 2007. Eating disorders in diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 40:218–26
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Fernández-Aranda F, Krug I, Jiménez-Murcia S, Granero R, Núñez A et al. 2009. Male eating disorders and therapy: a controlled pilot study with one year follow-up. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 40:479–86
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Fichter MM, Daser C, Postpischil F 1986. Anorexic syndromes in the male. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimic Disorders GI Szmukler, PD Slade, P Harris, D Benton, GFM Russell 305–13. Amsterdam: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Fichter MM, Naab S, Voderholzer U, Quadflieg N. 2021. Mortality in males as compared to females treated for an eating disorder: a large prospective controlled study. Eat. Weight Disord. Stud. Anorex. Bulim. Obes. 26:1627–37
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Field AE, Sonneville KR, Crosby RD, Swanson SA, Eddy KT et al. 2014. Prospective associations of concerns about physique and the development of obesity, binge drinking, and drug use among adolescent boys and young adult men. JAMA Pediatr. 168:34–39
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Flament MF, Henderson K, Buchholz A, Obeid N, Nguyen HN et al. 2015. Weight status and DSM-5 diagnoses of eating disorders in adolescents from the community. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 54:403–11.e2
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Forbush KT, Wildes JE, Pollack LO, Dunbar D, Luo J et al. 2013. Development and validation of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI). Psychol. Assess. 25:859–78
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Forney KJ, Holland LA, Keel PK. 2012. Influence of peer context on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating pathology in women and men. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 45:982–89
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gadalla TM. 2008. Psychiatric comorbidity in eating disorders: a comparison of men and women. J. Men's Health 5:209–17
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Goddard E, Carral-Fernández L, Denneny E, Campbell IC, Treasure J. 2014. Cognitive flexibility, central coherence and social emotional processing in males with an eating disorder. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 15:317–26
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Goldberg L, Elliot DL, Clarke GN, MacKinnon DP, Zoref L et al. 1996. The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) prevention program: background and results of a model intervention. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 150:713–21
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gorrasi ISR, Bonetta S, Roppolo M, Abbate Daga G, Bo S et al. 2020. Traits of orthorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia in Italian university students: a multicentre study. Eat. Weight Disord. Stud. Anorex. Bulim. Obes. 25:1413–23
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Grabhorn R, Köpp W, Gitzinger I, von Wietersheim J, Kaufhold J. 2003. Differences between female and male patients with eating disorders—results of a multicenter study on eating disorders (MZ-Ess). Psychother. Psychosom. Med. Psychol. 53:15–22 ( in German )
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Griffiths S, Murray SB, Touyz S. 2013. Drive for muscularity and muscularity-oriented disordered eating in men: the role of set shifting difficulties and weak central coherence. Body Image 10:636–39
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Grillot CL, Keel PK. 2018. Barriers to seeking treatment for eating disorders: the role of self-recognition in understanding gender disparities in who seeks help. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 51:1285–89
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Grunewald W, Convertino AD, Safren SA, Mimiaga MJ, O'Cleirigh C et al. 2021. Appearance discrimination and binge eating among sexual minority men. Appetite 156:104819
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Grunewald W, Kinkel-Ram SS, Smith AR 2022. Conformity to masculine norms, masculine discrepancy stress, and changes in muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Body Image 40:237–48
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Gueguen J, Godart N, Chambry J, Brun-Eberentz A, Foulon C et al. 2012. Severe anorexia nervosa in men: comparison with severe AN in women and analysis of mortality. Int J. Eat. Disord. 45:537–45
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Haedt AA, Keel PK. 2010. Comparing definitions of purging disorder on point prevalence and associations with external validators. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 43:433–39
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hammerle F, Huss M, Ernst V, Bürger A. 2016. Thinking dimensional: prevalence of DSM-5 early adolescent full syndrome, partial and subthreshold eating disorders in a cross-sectional survey in German schools. BMJ Open 6:e010843
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Hazzard VM, Loth KA, Hooper L, Becker CB. 2020. Food insecurity and eating disorders: a review of emerging evidence. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 22:74
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Hebebrand J, Müller B, Herpertz S, Heussen N, Remschmidt H. 2001. Prospective 10-year follow-up in adolescent anorexia nervosa—course, outcome, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial adaptation. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry Allied Discip. 42:603–12
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hilbert A, Zenger M, Eichler J, Brähler E. 2021. Psychometric evaluation of the Eating Disorders in Youth Questionnaire when used in adults: prevalence estimates for symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and population norms. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 54:399–408
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Hildebrandt T, Langenbucher J, Schlundt DG. 2004. Muscularity concerns among men: development of attitudinal and perceptual measures. Body Image 1:169–81
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hildebrandt T, Walker DC, Alfano L, Delinsky S, Bannon K. 2010. Development and validation of a male specific body checking questionnaire. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 43:77–87
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hoang U, Goldacre M, James A. 2014. Mortality following hospital discharge with a diagnosis of eating disorder: national record linkage study, England, 2001–2009. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 47:507–15
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Huang Y, Wang Y, Wang H, Liu Z, Yu X et al. 2019. Prevalence of mental disorders in China: a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Lancet Psychiatry 6:211–24
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr., Kessler RC 2007. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Biol. Psychiatry 61:348–58
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Jankowski GS, Diedrichs PC, Atkinson MJ, Fawkner H, Gough B, Halliwell E. 2017. A pilot controlled trial of a cognitive dissonance–based body dissatisfaction intervention with young British men. Body Image 23:93–102
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Jones DC, Crawford JK. 2005. Adolescent boys and body image: weight and muscularity concerns as dual pathways to body dissatisfaction. J. Youth Adolesc. 34:629–36
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kamody RC, Grilo CM, Udo T. 2020. Disparities in DSM-5 defined eating disorders by sexual orientation among US adults. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 53:278–87
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Karrer Y, Halioua R, Mötteli S, Iff S, Seifritz E et al. 2020. Disordered eating and eating disorders in male elite athletes: a scoping review. BMJ Open Sport Exerc. Med. 6:e000801
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Kask J, Ramklint M, Kolia N, Panagiotakos D, Ekbom A et al. 2017. Anorexia nervosa in males: excess mortality and psychiatric co-morbidity in 609 Swedish in-patients. Psychol. Med. 47:1489–99
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Katzman DK, Spettigue W, Agostino H, Couturier J, Dominic A et al. 2021. Incidence and age- and sex-specific differences in the clinical presentation of children and adolescents with avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 175:e213861
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Keel PK, Baxter MG, Heatherton TF, Joiner TE Jr. 2007. A 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 116:422–32
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Keel PK, Forney KJ, Brown TA, Heatherton TF. 2013. Influence of college peers on disordered eating in women and men at 10-year follow-up. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:105–10
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Keel PK, Klump KL. 2003. Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? Implications for conceptualizing their etiology. Psychol. Bull. 129:747–69
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kilpela LS, Blomquist K, Verzijl C, Wilfred S, Beyl R, Becker CB. 2016. The Body Project 4 All: a pilot randomized controlled trial of a mixed-gender dissonance-based body image program. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 49:591–602
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Klein KM, Brown TA, Kennedy GA, Keel PK. 2017. Examination of parental dieting and comments as risk factors for increased drive for thinness in men and women at 20-year follow-up. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 50:490–97
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Korndörfer SR, Lucas AR, Suman VJ, Crowson CS, Krahn LE, Melton LJ III 2003. Long-term survival of patients with anorexia nervosa: a population-based study in Rochester, Minn. Mayo Clin. Proc. 78:278–84
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Kummer KK, Pope HG Jr., Hudson JI, Kemmler G, Pinggera G-M, Mangweth-Matzek B. 2019. Aging male symptomatology and eating behavior. Aging Male 22:55–61
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kwag KH, Han SW, Cho JY, Ko M, Park EJ, Kim YR. 2021. A school-based eating disorder prevention program (Me, You & Us) for young adolescents in Korea: a 3-year follow-up study. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 54:168–73
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Lavender JM 2021. Using eating disorder and body image assessment questionnaires with boys/men. Eating Disorders in Boys and Men JM Nagata, TA Brown, SB Murray, JM Lavender 83–101. Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Littrell CK, Grieve FG, Derryberry WP, Brausch A, Parker OJ, Scott JN. 2021. Relationships among facets of narcissism, symptoms of eating disorders, and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia. J. Men's Stud. 29:118–28
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Lodge AC, Umberson D. 2013. Age and embodied masculinities: Midlife gay and heterosexual men talk about their bodies. J. Aging Stud. 27:225–32
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lonergan AR, Mitchison D, Bussey K, Fardouly J 2021. Social media and eating and body image concerns among men and boys. Eating Disorders in Boys and Men JM Nagata, TA Brown, SB Murray, JM Lavender 307–16. Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  90. MacKinnon DP, Goldberg L, Clarke GN, Elliot DL, Cheong J et al. 2001. Mediating mechanisms in a program to reduce intentions to use anabolic steroids and improve exercise self-efficacy and dietary behavior. Prev. Sci. 2:15–28
    [Google Scholar]
  91. McCreary DR, Sasse DK, Saucier DM, Dorsch KD. 2004. Measuring the drive for muscularity: factorial validity of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in men and women. Psychol. Men Masc. 5:49–58
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Meyer IH. 1995. Minority stress and mental health in gay men. J. Health Soc. Behav. 36:38–56
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Mitchison D, Mond J, Bussey K, Griffiths S, Trompeter N et al. 2020. DSM-5 full syndrome, other specified, and unspecified eating disorders in Australian adolescents: prevalence and clinical significance. Psychol. Med. 50:981–90
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Mitchison D, Mond J, Griffiths S, Hay P, Nagata JM et al. 2022. Prevalence of muscle dysmorphia in adolescents: findings from the EveryBODY study. Psychol. Med. 52:3142–49
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Mohammadi MR, Mostafavi SA, Hooshyari Z, Khaleghi A, Ahmadi N et al. 2020. Prevalence, correlates and comorbidities of feeding and eating disorders in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 53:349–61
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Mohler-Kuo M, Schnyder U, Dermota P, Wei W, Milos G 2016. The prevalence, correlates, and help-seeking of eating disorders in Switzerland. Psychol. Med. 46:2749–58
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Møller-Madsen S, Nystrup J, Nielsen S. 1996. Mortality in anorexia nervosa in Denmark during the period 1970–1987. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 94:454–59
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Murray SB, Brown TA, Blashill AJ, Compte EJ, Lavender JM et al. 2019. The development and validation of the muscularity-oriented eating test: a novel measure of muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 52:1389–98
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Murray SB, Griffiths S, Mond JM. 2016. Evolving eating disorder psychopathology: conceptualising muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Br. J. Psychiatry 208:414–15
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Murray SB, Nagata JM, Griffiths S, Calzo JP, Brown TA et al. 2017. The enigma of male eating disorders: a critical review and synthesis. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 57:1–11
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Murray SB, Rieger E, Karlov L, Touyz SW. 2013. Masculinity and femininity in the divergence of male body image concerns. J. Eat. Disord. 1:11
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Austin SB. 2020. Emerging trends in eating disorders among sexual and gender minorities. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 33:562–67
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Nagl M, Jacobi C, Paul M, Beesdo-Baum K, Höfler M et al. 2016. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 25:903–18
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Núñez-Navarro A, Agüera Z, Krug I, Jiménez-Murcia S, Sánchez I et al. 2012. Do men with eating disorders differ from women in clinics, psychopathology and personality?. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 20:23–31
    [Google Scholar]
  105. O'Dea JA, Abraham S 2000. Improving the body image, eating attitudes, and behaviors of young male and female adolescents: a new educational approach that focuses on self-esteem. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 28:43–57
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Oyebode F, Boodhoo JA, Schapira K. 1988. Anorexia nervosa in males: clinical features and outcome. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 7:121–24
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Pachankis JE, Clark KA, Burton CL, Hughto JMW, Bränström R, Keene DE. 2020. Sex, status, competition, and exclusion: intraminority stress from within the gay community and gay and bisexual men's mental health. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 119:713–40
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Perelman H, Schwartz N, Yeoward-Dodson J, Quiñones IC, Murray MF et al. 2022. Reducing eating disorder risk among male athletes: a randomized controlled trial investigating the male athlete body project. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 55:193–206
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Pope HG Jr., Katz DL, Hudson JI. 1993. Anorexia nervosa and “reverse anorexia” among 108 male bodybuilders. Compr. Psychiatry 34:406–9
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Powers PS, Spratt EG. 1994. Males and females with eating disorders. Eat. Disord. 2:197–214
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Preti A, de Girolamo G, Vilagut G, Alonso J, de Graaf R et al. 2009. The epidemiology of eating disorders in six European countries: results of the ESEMeD-WMH project. J. Psychiatr. Res. 43:1125–32
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Quadflieg N, Strobel C, Naab S, Voderholzer U, Fichter MM. 2019. Mortality in males treated for an eating disorder—a large prospective study. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 52:1365–69
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Raevuori A, Keski-Rahkonen A, Hoek HW, Sihvola E, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. 2008. Lifetime anorexia nervosa in young men in the community: five cases and their co-twins. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 41:458–63
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Rhea D, Lantz CD, Cornelius A 2004. Development of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (MDI). J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 44:428–35
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Sancho C, Arija M, Asorey O, Canals J. 2007. Epidemiology of eating disorders. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 16:495–504
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Schaumberg K, Welch E, Breithaupt L, Hübel C, Baker JH et al. 2017. The science behind the Academy for Eating Disorders’ nine truths about eating disorders. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 25:432–50
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Shingleton RM, Thompson-Brenner H, Thompson DR, Pratt EM, Franko DL. 2015. Gender differences in clinical trials of binge eating disorder: an analysis of aggregated data. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 83:382–86
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Silén Y, Sipilä PN, Raevuori A, Mustelin L, Marttunen M et al. 2020. DSM-5 eating disorders among adolescents and young adults in Finland: a public health concern. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 53:790–801
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Simone M, Telke S, Anderson LM, Eisenberg M, Neumark-Sztainer D. 2022. Ethnic/racial and gender differences in disordered eating behavior prevalence trajectories among women and men from adolescence into adulthood. Soc. Sci. Med. 294:114720
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sladek MR, Engeln R, Miller SA. 2014. Development and validation of the Male Body Talk Scale: a psychometric investigation. Body Image 11:233–44
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Smink FR, van Hoeken D, Oldehinkel AJ, Hoek HW. 2014. Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 47:610–19
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Solmi F, Hotopf M, Hatch S, Treasure J, Micali N. 2016. Eating disorders in a multi-ethnic inner-city UK sample: prevalence, comorbidity and service use. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 51:369–81
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Stanford JN, McCabe MP. 2005a. Evaluation of a body image prevention programme for adolescent boys. Eur. Eat. Disord. Rev. 13:360–70
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Stanford JN, McCabe MP. 2005b. Sociocultural influences on adolescent boys’ body image and body change strategies. Body Image 2:105–13
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Stanford SC, Lemberg R. 2012. Measuring eating disorders in men: development of the eating disorder assessment for men (EDAM). Eat. Disord. 20:427–36
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Stice E, Shaw H, Marti CN. 2007. A meta-analytic review of eating disorder prevention programs: encouraging findings. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 3:207–31
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Støving RK, Andries A, Brixen K, Bilenberg N, Hørder K. 2011. Gender differences in outcome of eating disorders: a retrospective cohort study. Psychiatry Res. 186:362–66
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Striegel-Moore RH, Garvin V, Dohm FA, Rosenheck RA. 1999. Psychiatric comorbidity of eating disorders in men: a national study of hospitalized veterans. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 25:399–404
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Strobel C, Quadflieg N, Naab S, Voderholzer U, Fichter MM. 2019. Long-term outcomes in treated males with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa—a prospective, gender-matched study. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 52:1353–64
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Strobel C, Quadflieg N, Voderholzer U, Naab S, Fichter MM. 2018. Short- and long-term outcome of males treated for anorexia nervosa: a review of the literature. Eat. Weight Disord. Stud. Anorex. Bulim. Obes. 23:541–52
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Swanson SA, Crow SJ, Le Grange D, Swendsen J, Merikangas KR 2011. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents. Results from the national comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 68:714–23
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Tylka TL. 2011. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors. Body Image 8:199–207
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Tylka TL. 2015. No harm in looking, right? Men's pornography consumption, body image, and well-being. Psychol. Men Masc. 16:97–107
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Tylka TL, Andorka MJ. 2012. Support for an expanded tripartite influence model with gay men. Body Image 9:57–67
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Tylka TL, Bergeron D, Schwartz JP. 2005. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS). Body Image 2:161–75
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Udo T, Grilo CM. 2018. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5-defined eating disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Biol. Psychiatry 84:345–54
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Ulfvebrand S, Birgegård A, Norring C, Högdahl L, von Hausswolff-Juhlin Y. 2015. Psychiatric comorbidity in women and men with eating disorders results from a large clinical database. Psychiatry Res. 230:294–99
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Wang SB, Borders A. 2017. Rumination mediates the associations between sexual minority stressors and disordered eating, particularly for men. Eat. Weight Disord. Stud. Anorex. Bulim. Obes. 22:699–706
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Warschburger P, Zitzmann J. 2018. The efficacy of a universal school-based prevention program for eating disorders among German adolescents: results from a randomized-controlled trial. J. Youth Adolesc. 47:1317–31
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Weltzin TE, Bean P, Klosterman E, Lee HJ, Welk-Richards R. 2015. Sex differences in the effects of residential treatment on the quality of life of eating disorder patients. Eat. Weight Disord. Stud. Anorex. Bulim. Obes. 20:301–10
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Weltzin TE, Cornella-Carlson T, Fitzpatrick ME, Kennington B, Bean P, Jefferies C. 2012. Treatment issues and outcomes for males with eating disorders. Eat. Disord. 20:444–59
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Wilksch SM, Paxton S, Byrne S, Austin S, McLean S et al. 2015. Prevention across the spectrum: a randomized controlled trial of three programs to reduce risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity. Psychol. Med. 45:1811–23
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Wilksch SM, Wade TD. 2009. Reduction of shape and weight concern in young adolescents: a 30-month controlled evaluation of a media literacy program. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 48:652–61
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Woodside DB, Bulik CM, Thornton L, Klump KL, Tozzi F et al. 2004. Personality in men with eating disorders. J. Psychosom. Res. 57:273–78
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Woodside DB, Garfinkel PE, Lin E, Goering P, Kaplan AS et al. 2001. Comparisons of men with full or partial eating disorders, men without eating disorders, and women with eating disorders in the community. Am. J. Psychiatry 158:570–74
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Woodside DB, Kaplan AS. 1994. Day hospital treatment in males with eating disorders—response and comparison to females. J. Psychosom. Res. 38:471–75
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Yager Z, McLean SA, Li X. 2019. Body image outcomes in a replication of the ATLAS program in Australia. Psychol. Men Masc. 20:418–28
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Yilmaz Z, Schaumberg K, Halvorsen M, Goodman EL, Brosof LC et al. 2022. Predicting eating disorder and anxiety symptoms using disorder-specific and transdiagnostic polygenic scores for anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol. Med. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721005079
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  149. Yu K, Perez M 2021. Racial and ethnic considerations in the United States. Eating Disorders in Boys and Men JM Nagata, TA Brown, SB Murray, JM Lavender 217–28. Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-080921-074125
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-080921-074125
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error