In the United States, an estimated 4.2 million young people experience homelessness during critical stages in their development—adolescence and emerging adulthood. While research on youth homelessness often emphasizes risk and vulnerability, the field must situate these issues within the developmental trajectories of adolescence and emerging adulthood to effectively prevent and end youth homelessness. This review uses the Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) as a conceptual framework for contextualizing the landscape of youth homelessness research in the United States since 2010. An extension of ecological models of risk-taking, RAAM emphasizes both risk and resilience, positing that negative as well as positive socialization processes across interactions with family, peers, social services, and formal institutions affect key housing, health, and behavioral outcomes for youth experiencing homelessness. This review applies RAAM to our understanding of the causes and consequences of youth homelessness, recent interventions, and recommendations for future directions.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 20 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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