Racial stress and racial trauma refer to psychological, physiological, and behavioral responses to race-based threats and discriminatory experiences. This article reviews the evidence base regarding techniques for coping with racial stress and trauma. These techniques include self-care, self-compassion, social support, mindfulness, cognitive restructuring, cognitive defusion, identity-affirming practices and development of racial/ethnic identity, expressive writing, social action and activism, and psychedelics. These strategies have shown the potential to mitigate psychological symptoms and foster a sense of empowerment among individuals affected by racial stress and trauma. While the ultimate goal should undoubtedly be to address the root cause of racism, it is imperative to acknowledge that until then, implementing these strategies can effectively provide much-needed support for individuals affected by racism.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 20 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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