The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) arises from strong correlations between electrons when they are confined to two dimensions and exposed to a strong magnetic field. The underlying physics is the formation of topological particles called composite fermions (CFs), electron-vortex bound states whose integer quantum Hall effect explains a large majority of the observed FQHE states. In recent years, the focus has shifted to the more exotic states that originate from a weak residual interaction between composite fermions. These include chiral p-wave paired states of composite fermions at certain even denominator fractions, unconventional FQHE of composite fermions, and a series of CF crystals at low fillings. Aside from these states, we also review the FQHE in multicomponent systems, which has attracted renewed attention because of the observation of well-developed FQHE in several multivalley systems, such as graphene and AlAs quantum wells.


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