1932

Abstract

For a large class of nonequilibrium systems, thermodynamic notions like work, heat, and, in particular, entropy production can be identified on the level of fluctuating dynamical trajectories. Within stochastic thermodynamics various fluctuation theorems relating these quantities have been proven. Their application to experimental systems requires that all relevant mesostates are accessible. Recent advances address the typical situation that only partial, or coarse-grained, information about a system is available. Thermodynamic inference as a general strategy uses consistency constraints derived from stochastic thermodynamics to infer otherwise hidden properties of nonequilibrium systems. An important class in this respect are active particles, for which we resolve the conflicting strategies that have been proposed to identify entropy production. As a paradigm for thermodynamic inference, the thermodynamic uncertainty relation provides a lower bound on the entropy production through measurements of the dispersion of any current in the system. Likewise, it quantifies the cost of precision for biomolecular processes. Generalizations and ramifications allow the inference of, inter alia, model-free upper bounds on the efficiency of molecular motors and of the minimal number of intermediate states in enzymatic networks.

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2019-03-10
2024-04-24
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