The survival of cells depends on perpetual active motions, including () bending excitations of the soft cell envelopes, () the bidirectional transport of materials and organelles between the cell center and the periphery, and () the ongoing restructuring of the intracellular macromolecular scaffolds mediating global cell changes associated with cell adhesion locomotion and phagocytosis. Central questions addressed are the following: How can this bustling motion of extremely complex soft structures be characterized and measured? What are the major driving forces? Further topics include () the active dynamic control of global shape changes by the interactive coupling of the aster-like soft scaffold of microtubules and the network of actin filaments associated with the cell envelope (the actin cortex) and () the generation of propulsion forces by solitary actin gelation waves propagating within the actin cortex.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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