1932

Abstract

Active fluids exhibit spontaneous flows with complex spatiotemporal structure, which have been observed in bacterial suspensions, sperm cells, cytoskeletal suspensions, self-propelled colloids, and cell tissues. Despite occurring in the absence of inertia, chaotic active flows are reminiscent of inertial turbulence, and hence they are known as active turbulence. Here, we survey the field, providing a unified perspective over different classes of active turbulence. To this end, we divide our review into sections for systems with either polar or nematic order, and with or without momentum conservation (wet or dry). Comparing to inertial turbulence, we highlight the emergence of power-law scaling with either universal or nonuniversal exponents. We also contrast scenarios for the transition from steady to chaotic flows, and we discuss the absence of energy cascades. We link this feature to both the existence of intrinsic length scales and the self-organized nature of energy injection in active turbulence, which are fundamental differences from inertial turbulence. We close by outlining the emerging picture, remaining challenges, and future directions.

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2022-03-10
2024-06-14
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