1932

Abstract

In this review, we consider theory and research focused on girls’ and women's violence, with an emphasis on studies that inform long-running debates about whether uniquely gendered explanations are required to understand such behaviors. The review emphasizes potentially malleable social processes and influences as well as studies that have explored neighborhood, family, and peer-based sources of risk. We also examine contemporary research on precursors of a specific type of aggression—intimate partner violence—where self-reports of perpetration have been found to be similar across gender, but research has consistently shown that the consequences are generally more serious for female victims. Our review draws on findings from analyses of large-scale survey data as well as qualitative approaches that explore meanings and motivations. The results point to significant areas of overlap, as well as some distinctive patterns in gender, support learning, and intersectionality theories, and identify potentially fruitful areas for additional research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011518-024517
2019-01-13
2024-06-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/criminol/2/1/annurev-criminol-011518-024517.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011518-024517&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Anderson E 1994. The code of the street. The Atlantic Monthly May 80–94. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1994/05/the-code-of-the-streets/306601/
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson E 1999. Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City New York: Norton
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Apel R, Kaukinen C 2008. On the relationship between family structure and antisocial behavior: parental cohabitation and blended households. Criminology 46:135–70
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Belknap J, Bowers M 2016. Girls and women in gangs. The Wiley Handbook on the Psychology of Violence CA Cuevas, CM Rennison 211–25 Chichester, UK: John Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boonzaier F 2008. ‘If the man says you must sit, then you must sit’: the relational construction of woman abuse: gender, subjectivity and violence. Fem. Psychol. 18:2183–206
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brauer JR, De Coster S 2015. Social relationships and delinquency: Revisiting parent and peer influence during adolescence. Youth Soc 47:3374–94
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan GJ, Klebanov PK, Sealand N 1993. Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development. ? Am. J. Sociol. 99:2353–95
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brown LM 1998. Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls’ Anger Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Browning CR, Gardner M, Maimon D, Brooks-Gunn J 2014. Collective efficacy and the contingent consequences of exposure to life-threatening violence. Dev. Psychol. 50:71878–90
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brush L 1990. Violent acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: methodological issues in the National Survey of Families and Households. Gender Soc 4:156–67
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bukowski WM, Newcomb AF, Hartup WW 1998. The Company They Keep: Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Burgess-Proctor A 2006. Intersections of race, class, gender, and crime: future directions for feminist criminology. Fem. Criminol. 1:127–47
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Capaldi DM, Kim HK, Shortt JW 2007. Observed initiation and reciprocity of physical aggression in young, at-risk couples. J. Fam. Violence 22:101–11
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Capaldi DM, Knoble NB, Shortt JW, Kim HK 2012. A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Partn. Abuse 3:2231–80
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Capaldi DM, Langhinrichsen-Rohling J 2012. Informing intimate partner violence prevention efforts: dyadic, developmental, and contextual considerations. Prev. Sci. 13:4323–28
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Capaldi DM, Shortt JW, Crosby L 2003. Physical and psychological aggression in at-risk young couples: stability and change in young adulthood. Merrill-Palmer Q 49:11–27
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cernkovich SA, Giordano PC 1987. Family relationships and delinquency. Criminology 25:295–21
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chamberlain P 2003. Treating Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Advances Made Through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care Model Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chesney-Lind M 1997. The Female Offender: Girls, Women, and Crime Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cohen A 1955. Delinquent Boys Glencoe, IL: Free Press
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cummings EM, Davies P 1994. Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development. Children and Marital Conflict: The Impact of Family Dispute and Resolution New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Daly K 1994. Gender, Crime, and Punishment New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dardis CM, Dixon KJ, Edwards KM, Turchik JA 2015. An examination of the factors related to dating violence perpetration among young men and women and associated theoretical explanations: a review of the literature. Trauma Violence Abuse 16:2136–52
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Decker SH, Van Winkle B 1996. Life in the Gang: Family, Friends, and Violence New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  25. DeMaris A, Swinford S 1996. Female victims of spousal violence: factors influencing their level of fearfulness. Fam. Relat. 45:198–106
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Demuth S, Brown SL 2004. Family structure, family processes, and adolescent delinquency: the significance of parental absence versus parental gender. J. Res. Crime Delinquency 41:158–81
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Deschenes EP, Esbensen F-A 1999. Violence and gangs: gender differences in perceptions and behavior. J. Quant. Criminol. 15:163–96
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dobash RP, Dobash RE 2004. Women's violence to men in intimate relationships: working on a puzzle. Br. J. Crim. 44:3324–49
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Dobash RP, Dobash RE, Wilson M, Daly M 1992. The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence. Soc. Probl. 39:71–91
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ehrensaft EK, Cohen P, Brown J, Smailes E, Chen H, Johnson JG 2003. Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 71:4471–53
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Evans SE, Davies C, DiLillo D 2008. Exposure to domestic violence: a meta-analysis of child and adolescent outcomes. Aggress. Violent Behav. 13:2131–40
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ferraro KF 1996. Women's fear of victimization: shadow of sexual assault. ? Soc. Forces 75:2667–90
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ford K, Sohn W, Lepkowski J 2002. American adolescents: sexual mixing patterns, bridge patterns, and concurrency. Sex. Transm. Dis. 29:13–19
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Foshee VA, Reyes HLM, Ennett ST, Suchindran C, Mathias JP et al. 2011. Risk and protective factors distinguishing profiles of adolescent peer and dating violence perpetration. J. Adolesc. Health 48:4344–50
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Foster JD, Kuperminc GP, Price AW 2004. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress and related symptoms among inner-city minority youth exposed to community violence. J. Youth Adolesc. 33:159–69
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fowler PJ, Tompsett CJ, Braciszewski JM, Jacques-Tiura AJ, Baltes BB 2009. Community violence: a meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:1227–59
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Franke TM, Huynh-Hohnbaum ALT, Chung Y 2002. Adolescent violence: with whom they fight and where. J. Ethnic Cult. Divers. Soc. Work 11:133–58
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gaarder E, Belknap J 2004. Little women: girls in adult prison. Women Crim. Justice 15:251–80
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Gilbert PR 2002. Discourses of female violence and societal gender stereotypes. Violence Against Women 8:111271–300
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gilligan C 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Giordano PC 1978. Girls, guys, and gangs: the changing social context of female delinquency. J. Crim. Law Criminol. 69:126–32
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Giordano PC 2009. Peer influences on girls delinquency. See Zahn 2009 127–45
  43. Giordano PC 2010. Legacies of Crime: A Follow-Up of the Children of Highly Delinquent Girls and Boys New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Giordano PC, Copp JE 2015. “Packages” of risk: implications for determining the effect of maternal incarceration on child wellbeing. Criminol. Public Policy 14:1157–68
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Giordano PC, Copp JE, Longmore MA, Manning WD 2016.a Anger, control, and intimate partner violence in young adulthood. J. Fam. Violence 31:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Giordano PC, Deines JA, Cernkovich SA 2006. In and out of crime: a life course perspective on girls’ delinquency. Gender and Crime: Patterns in Victimization and Offending K Heimer, C Kruttschnitt 17–40 New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Giordano PC, Johnson WL, Longmore MA, Manning WD, Minter MD 2015. Intimate partner violence in young adulthood: narratives of persistence and desistance. Criminology 53:3330–65
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Giordano PC, Johnson WL, Manning WD, Longmore MA 2016.b Parenting in adolescence and young adult intimate partner violence. J. Fam. Issues 37:4443–65
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Giordano PC, Manning WD, Longmore MA, Flanigan CM 2012. Developmental shifts in the character of romantic and sexual relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. National Symposium on Family Issues, Vol. 2: Early Adulthood in Family Context A Booth, S Brown, N Landale, W Manning, S McHale 133–64 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Giordano PC, Soto DA, Manning WD, Longmore MA 2010. The characteristics of romantic relationships associated with teen dating violence. Soc. Sci. Res. 39:6863–874
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Gomez A 2011. Testing the cycle of violence hypothesis: child abuse and adolescent dating violence as predictors of intimate partner violence in young adulthood. Youth Soc 43:171–92
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Graham-Kevan N, Archer J 2003. Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relationships: the effect of sampling. Violence Victims 18:181–96
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Grych JH, Jouriles EN, Swank PR, McDonald R, Norwood WD 2000. Patterns of adjustment among children of battered women. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 68:184–94
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hagan J 1990. The structuration of gender and deviance: a power-control theory of vulnerability to crime and the search for deviant role exits. Can. Rev. Sociol. Anthropol. 27:2137–56
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Hagan J, Gillis AR, Simpson J 1985. The class structure of gender and delinquency: toward a power-control theory of common delinquent behavior. Am. J. Sociol. 90:61151–78
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hagan J, Gillis AR, Simpson J 1990. Clarifying and extending power-control theory. Am. J. Sociol. 95:41024–37
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Harding DJ 2008. Neighborhood violence and adolescent friendships. Int. J. Confl. Violence 2:128–55
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Harding DJ 2009. Violence, older peers, and the socialization of adolescent boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Am. Sociol. Rev. 74:3445–64
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Haskins AR, Amorim M, Mingo M 2018. Parental incarceration and child outcomes: those at risk, evidence of impacts, methodological insights, and areas of future work. Sociol. Compass 12:e12562
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Haynie DL, Doogan NJ, Soller B 2014. Gender, friendship networks, and delinquency: a dynamic network approach. Criminology 52:4688–02
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Haynie DL, Steffensmeier D, Bell KE 2007. Gender and serious violence: untangling the role of friendship sex composition. Youth Violence Juv. Justice 5:235–53
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Heimer K 1996. Gender, interaction, and delinquency: testing a theory of differential social control. Soc. Psychol. Q. 59:139–61
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Heimer K, De Coster S 1999. The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology 37:2277–18
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Heimer K, Kruttschnitt C 2006. Gender and Crime: Patterns of Victimization and Offending New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Heimer K, Wittrock S, Ünal H 2006. The crimes of poverty: economic marginalization and the gender gap in crime. Gender and Crime: Patterns of Victimization and Offending K Heimer, C Kruttschnitt 115–26 New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Herrera VM, Wiersma JD, Cleveland HH 2008. The influence of individual and partner characteristics on the perpetration of intimate partner violence in young adult relationships. J. Youth Adolesc. 37:3284–96
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Hoeben EM, Weerman FM 2016. Why is involvement in unstructured socializing related to adolescent delinquency. ? Criminology 54:2242–81
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hoeve M, Dubas JS, Eichelsheim VI, van der Laan PH, Smeenk W, Gerris JRM 2009. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: a meta-analysis. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 37:6749–75
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hubbard DJ, Pratt TC 2002. A meta-analysis of the predictors of delinquency among girls. J. Offender Rehabil. 34:31–13
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Hutchison IW 1999. Alcohol, fear, and woman abuse. Sex Roles 40:11–12893–20
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ingoldsby EM, Shaw DS 2002. Neighborhood contextual factors and early-starting antisocial pathways. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 5:121–55
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Irwin K, Adler C 2012. Fighting for her honor: girls’ violence in distressed communities. Fem. Criminol. 7:4350–80
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Irwin K, Chesney‐Lind M 2008. Girls’ violence: beyond dangerous masculinity. Sociol. Compass 2:3837–55
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Jensen GF, Thompson K 1990. What's class got to do with it? A further examination of power-control theory. Am. J. Sociol. 95:1009–23
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Johnson MP 1995. Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: two forms of violence against women. J. Marriage Fam. 57:283–94
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Johnson WL, Giordano PC, Longmore MA, Manning WD 2014. Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood. J. Health Soc. Behav. 55:139–55
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Johnson WL, Giordano PC, Manning WD, Longmore MA 2015. The age-IPV curve: changes in the perpetration of intimate partner violence during adolescence and young adulthood. J. Youth Adolesc. 44:3708–26
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Jones N 2008. Working ‘the code’: on girls, gender, and inner-city violence. Aust. N. Z. J. Crim. 41:163–83
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Jones N 2009. Between Good and Ghetto: African American Girls and Inner-City Violence New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kang T, Tanner J, Wortley S 2018. Same routines, different effects: gender, leisure, and young offending. Justice Q 35:1030–72
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Katz CM, Webb VJ, Fox K, Shaffer JN 2011. Understanding the relationship between violent victimization and gang membership. J. Crim. Justice 39:148–59
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Komter A 1989. Hidden power in marriage. Gend. Soc. 3:2187–216
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kreager DA 2007. When it's good to be “bad”: violence and adolescent peer acceptance. Criminology 45:4893–923
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Kruttschnitt C 2016. 2015 Presidential address to the American Society of Criminology: the politics, and place, of gender in research on crime. Criminology 54:18–29
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kruttschnitt C, Giordano PC 2009. Family influences on girls’ delinquency. See Zahn 2009 107–26
  86. Kruttschnitt C, Yule C, Alper M, Klassen A 2017. Situational variations in, and women's accounts of, avoided acts of serious intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women 24:4477–501
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Lauritsen JL, Heimer K, Lynch JP 2009. Trends in the gender gap in violent offending: new evidence from the National Crime Victimization Survey. Criminology 47:2361–99
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Leonard E 1982. Women, Crime and Society: A Critique of Theoretical Criminology New York: Longman
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Linder JR, Collins WA 2005. Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood. J. Fam. Psychol. 19:2252–62
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Mack KY, Peck JH, Leiber MJ 2015. The effects of family structure and family processes on externalizing and internalizing behaviors of male and female youth: a longitudinal examination. Deviant Behav 36:9740–64
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Marcus H, Nurius P 1986. Possible selves. Am. Psychol. 41:9954–69
    [Google Scholar]
  92. McCarthy B, Felmlee D, Hagan J 2004. Girl friends are better: gender, friends, and crime among school and street youth. Criminology 42:4805–36
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Mears DP, Ploeger M, Warr M 1998. Explaining the gender gap in delinquency: peer influence and moral evaluations of behavior. J. Res. Crime Delinquency 35:3251–66
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Merton RK 1938. Social structure and anomie. Am. Sociol. Rev. 3:672–82
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Messerschmidt JW 1993. Masculinities and Crime: Critique and Reconceptualization of Theory Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Miller J 2001. One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Miller J, Mullins CW 2006. Stuck up, telling lies, and talking too much: the gendered context of women's violence. Gender and Crime: Patterns in Victimization and Offending K Heimer, C Kruttschnitt 41–66 New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Miller J, White NA 2003. Gender and adolescent relationship violence: a contextual examination. Criminology 41:41207–48
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Miller S, Gorman-Smith D, Sullivan T, Orpinas P, Simon TR 2009. Parent and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration in early adolescence: tests of moderation and gender differences. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 38:4538–50
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Minter MD, Longmore MA, Giordano PC, Manning WD 2015. Family of origin and peer influences on intimate partner violence during emerging adulthood. Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences SR Maxwell, SL Blair 1–22 Bingley, UK: Emerald
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Moffitt TE, Robins RW, Caspi A 2001. A couples analysis of partner abuse with implications for abuse-prevention policy. Criminol. Public Policy 1:15–36
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Morash M, Chesney-Lind M 1991. A reformulation and partial test of the power control theory of delinquency. Justice Q 8:347–77
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Morash M, Chesney-Lind M 2009. Girls’ violence in context. The Delinquent Girl MA Zahn 182–206 Philadelphia, PA: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Moretti MM, Obsuth I, Odgers CL, Reebye P 2006. Exposure to maternal versus paternal partner violence, PTSD, and aggression in adolescent girls and boys. Aggress. Behav. 32:4385–95
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Nabors EL, Jasinski JL 2009. Intimate partner violence perpetration among college students: the role of gender role and gendered violence attitudes. Fem. Criminol. 4:157–82
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Nemeth JM, Bomomi AE, Lee MA, Ludwin JM 2012. Sexual infidelity as trigger for intimate partner violence. J. Womens Health 21:9942–49
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Ness CD 2010. Why Girls Fight: Female Youth Violence in the Inner City New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Niolon PH, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Latzman NE, Valle LA, Kuoh H et al. 2015. Prevalence of teen dating violence and co-occurring risk factors among middle school youth in high-risk urban communities. J. Adolesc. Health 56:2S5–13
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Osgood DW, Anderson AL 2004. Unstructured socializing and rates of delinquency. Criminology 42:3519–50
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Papachristos AV, Braga AA, Piza E, Grossman LS 2015. The company you keep? The spillover effects of gang membership on individual gunshot victimization in a co-offending network. Criminology 53:4624–49
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Peterson D, Carson DC 2012. The sex composition of groups and youths’ delinquency: a comparison of gang and nongang peer groups. Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from the Eurogang Program of Research FA Esbensen, CL Mason 189–210 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Peterson D, Carson DC, Fowler E 2018. What's sex (composition) got to do with it? The importance of sex composition of gangs for female and male members’ offending and victimization. Justice Q 35:941–76
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Piquero NL, Gover AR, MacDonald JM, Piquero AR 2005. The influence of delinquent peers on delinquency: Does gender matter. ? Youth Soc 36:3251–75
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Proctor J 2004. Understanding the range of female criminality: a prison-based test of three traditional theories. Women Stud. Q. 32:61–85
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Renner LM, Slack KS 2006. Intimate partner violence and child maltreatment: understanding intra- and intergenerational connections. Child Abuse Negl 30:6599–17
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Rennison CM 2009. A new look at the gender gap in offending. Women Crim. Justice 19:3171–90
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Rivera B, Widom CS 1990. Childhood victimization and violent offending. Violence Vict 5:119–35
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Fitzmaurice G, Decker MR, Koenen KC 2010. Witness of intimate partner violence in childhood and perpetration of intimate partner violence in adulthood. Epidemiology 21:6809–18
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Rodermond E, Kruttschnitt C, Slotboom AM, Bijleveld CCJH 2016. Female desistance: a review of the literature. Eur. J. Criminol. 13:13–28
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F 1997. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277:5328918–24
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Saunders DG 1986. When battered women use violence: husband-abuse or self-defense. ? Violence Vict 1:147–60
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Schafer JA, Huebner BM, Bynum TS 2006. Fear of crime and criminal victimization: gender-based contrasts. J. Crim. Justice 34:3285–301
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Schnurr MP, Lohman BJ 2008. How much does school matter? An examination of adolescent dating violence perpetration. J. Youth Adolesc. 37:3266–83
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Schwartz J, Steffensmeier D 2012. Stability and change in girls’ delinquency and the gender gap: trends in violence and alcohol offending across multiple sources of evidence. Delinquent Girls S Miller, LD Leve, PK Kerig 3–23 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Shaw CR, McKay HD 1932. Are broken homes a causative factor in juvenile delinquency. ? Soc. Forces 10:4514–24
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Song L, Singer MI, Anglin TA 1998. Violence exposure and emotional trauma as contributors to adolescents’ violent behaviors. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 152:6531–36
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sorenson SB, Upchurch DM, Shen H 1996. Violence and injury in marital arguments: risk patterns and gender differences. Am. J. Public Health 86:135–40
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Steffensmeier D, Allan E 1996. Gender and crime: toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 22:459–87
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Steffensmeier D, Haynie DL 2000.a Gender, structural disadvantage, and urban crime: Do macrosocial variables also explain female offending rates. ? Criminology 38:2403–38
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Steffensmeier D, Haynie DL 2000.b The structural sources of urban female violence in the United States: a macrosocial gender-disaggregated analysis of adult and juvenile homicide offending rates. Homicide Stud 4:2107–34
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Sternberg KJ, Lamb ME, Guterman E, Abbott CB 2006. Effects of early and later family violence on children's behavior problems and depression: a longitudinal, multi-informant perspective. Child Abuse Negl 30:3283–306
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Stets J, Pirog-Good M 1990. Interpersonal control and courtship aggression. J. Soc. Pers. Relatsh. 7:371–94
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Straus MA, Gelles RJ 1990. Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Family Violence in 8,145 Families Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Suitor JJ, Minyard SA, Carter RS 2001. Did you see what I saw? Gender differences in perceptions of avenues to prestige among adolescents. Sociol. Inq. 71:4437–54
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Sullivan HS 1953. The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry New York: Norton
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Swinford SP, DeMaris A, Cernkovich SA, Giordano PC 2000. Harsh physical discipline in childhood and violence in later romantic involvements: the mediating role of problem behaviors. J. Marriage Fam. 62:2508–19
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Tapper K, Boulton M 2000. Social representations of physical, verbal, and indirect aggression in children: sex and age differences. Aggress. Behav. 26:442–54
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Thornberry TP 2009. The apple doesn't fall far from the tree (or does it?): intergenerational patterns of antisocial behavior—The American Society of Criminology 2008 Sutherland Address. Criminology 47:2297–425
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Thrasher FM 2013. The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Warr M 2002. Companions in Crime: The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Wells LE, Rankin JH 1991. Families and delinquency: a meta-analysis of the impact of broken homes. Soc. Probl. 38:171–93
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Whitaker DJ, Haileyesus T, Swahn M, Saltzman LS 2007. Differences in frequency of violence and reported injury between relationships with reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence. Am. J. Public Health 97:5941–47
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Whitaker DJ, Le B, Niolon PH 2010. Persistence and desistance of the perpetration of physical aggression across relationships: findings from a National Study of Adolescents. J. Interpers. Violence 25:4591–609
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Widom CS 1989. The cycle of violence. Science 244:4901160–66
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Widom CS 2014. The 2013 Sutherland Address: varieties of violent behavior. Criminology 52:313–44
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Widom CS, White HR 1997. Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence. Crim. Behav. Ment. Health 7:4287–10
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Wilkerson DL, Fagan J 1996. The role of firearms in violence scripts: the dynamics of gun events among adolescent males. Law Contemp. Probl. 59:155–89
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Williams JR, Ghandour RM, Kub JE 2008. Female perpetration of violence in heterosexual intimate relationships: adolescence through adulthood. Trauma Violence Abuse 9:4227–49
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Wilson WJ 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Wolfe DA, Jaffe P, Wilson SK, Zak L 1985. Children of battered women: the relation of child behavior to family violence and maternal stress. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 53:5657–65
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Wong TML, Slotboom AM, Bijleveld CCJH 2010. Risk factors for delinquency in adolescent and young adult females: a European review. Eur. J. Criminol. 7:4266–84
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Woodward LJ, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ 2002. Romantic relationships of young people with childhood and adolescent onset antisocial behavior problems. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 30:231–43
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Youniss J, Smollar J 1985. Adolescent Relations with Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Zahn MA 2009. The Delinquent Girl Philadelphia, PA: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Zimmerman GM, Messner SF 2010. Neighborhood context and the gender gap in adolescent violent crime. Am. Soc. Rev. 75:958–80
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011518-024517
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error