1932

Abstract

Youthful offenders convicted of serious crimes continue to be sentenced to death and life without parole in the United States based on legal arguments that cast them as incorrigible and permanent dangers to society. Yet psychological and neuroscientific evidence contradicts these arguments and unequivocally demonstrates significant changes in brain, behavior, and personality throughout the life course, especially during adolescence as it extends into the early twenties. This article () clarifies the current state of the science on typical behavioral and brain development showing robust changes into the twenties; () demonstrates that behavior, personality, and psychopathic traits are dynamic and change over time; and () underscores that reliance on prior criminal behavior only to predict later recidivism is tenuous at best. Together, these scientific insights make a case for extending juvenile protections to youthful offenders sentenced for crimes committed in their teens and early twenties.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-113250
2022-01-13
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/criminol/5/1/annurev-criminol-030920-113250.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-113250&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Arnett JJ. 2004. Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  2. Asscher JJ, van Vugt ES, Stams GJ, Dekovic M, Eichelsheim VI, Yousfi S. 2011. The relationship between juvenile psychopathic traits, delinquency and (violent) recidivism: a meta-analysis. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 52:1134–43
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Assoc. Press 2017. Miller v. Alabama and Jackson v. Hobbs. Associated Press July 31. https://www.ap.org/explore/locked-up-for-life/Miller-v-Alabama-and-Jackson-v-Hobbs
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bailey B. 2019. Still waiting: Oklahoma rarely paroles violent offenders. Frontier. April 17. https://www.readfrontier.org/stories/still-waiting-oklahoma-rarely-paroles-violent-offenders/
  5. Bansal PS, Waschbusch DA, Haas SM, Babinski DE, King S et al. 2019. Effects of intensive behavioral treatment for children with varying levels of conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Behav. Ther. 50:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barkley-Levenson E, Galvan A 2014. Neural representation of expected value in the adolescent brain. PNAS 111:1646–51
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baskin-Sommers A, Chang S-A, Estrada S, Chan L 2022. Considering exogenous and endogenous targets for effective interventions among youthful offenders. Annu. Rev. Criminol. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baskin-Sommers AR, Waller R, Fish AM, Hyde LW. 2015. Callous-unemotional traits trajectories interact with earlier conduct problems and executive control to predict violence and substance use among high risk male adolescents. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 43:1529–41
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bavelier D, Levi DM, Li RW, Dan Y, Hensch TK 2010. Removing brakes on adult brain plasticity: from molecular to behavioral interventions. J. Neurosci. 30:14964–71
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Beardslee J, Datta S, Byrd A, Meier M, Prins S et al. 2018. An examination of parental and peer influence on substance use and criminal offending during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Crim. Justice Behav. 45:783–98
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bonnie RJ, Scott ES 2013. The teenage brain: adolescent brain research and the law. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22:158–61
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bos DJ, Dreyfuss M, Tottenham N, Hare TA, Galvan A et al. 2020. Distinct and similar patterns of emotional development in adolescents and young adults. Dev. Psychobiol. 62:591–99
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Braams BR, Davidow JY, Somerville LH. 2019. Developmental patterns of change in the influence of safe and risky peer choices on risky decision-making. Dev. Sci. 22:e12717
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Braams BR, van Duijvenvoorde ACK, Peper JS, Crone EA. 2015. Longitudinal changes in adolescent risk-taking: a comprehensive study of neural responses to rewards, pubertal development, and risk-taking behavior. J. Neurosci 35(18):7226–38 [ Erratum]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Breiner K, Li A, Cohen AO, Steinberg L, Bonnie RJ et al. 2018. Combined effects of peer presence, social cues, and rewards on cognitive control in adolescents. Dev. Psychobiol. 60:292–302
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brown TT, Kuperman JM, Chung Y, Erhart M, McCabe C et al. 2012. Neuroanatomical assessment of biological maturity. Curr. Biol. 22:1693–98
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bur. Justice Stat 2010. Arrest data analysis tool: national estimates. Bureau of Justice Statistics. https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=datool&surl=/arrests/index.cfm
  18. Burnett S, Sebastian C, Kadosh KC, Blakemore S-J. 2011. The social brain in adolescence: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 35:1654–64
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Butts JA. 2016. Total youth arrests for violent crime still falling nationwide. Rep., John Jay Coll. Crim. Justice Res. Eval. Cent. New York: https://johnjayrec.nyc/2016/09/27/databit201601/
  20. Caldwell M, Skeem J, Salekin R, Van Rybroek G. 2016. Treatment response of adolescent offenders with psychopathy features. Crim. Justice Behav. 33:571–96
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Caldwell MF. 2011. Treatment-related changes in behavioral outcomes of psychopathy facets in adolescent offenders. Law Hum. Behav. 35:275–87
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Caldwell MF, McCormick DJ, Umstead D, Van Rybroek GJ. 2007. Evidence of treatment progress and therapeutic outcomes among adolescents with psychopathic features. Crim. Justice Behav. 34:573–87
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Campagne A, Fradcourt B, Pichat C, Baciu M, Kauffmann L, Peyrin C 2016. Cerebral correlates of emotional and action appraisals during visual processing of emotional scenes depending on spatial frequency: a pilot study. PLOS ONE 11:e0144393
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Casey BJ. 2015. Beyond simple models of self-control to circuit-based accounts of adolescent behavior. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66:295–319
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Casey BJ. 2019. Healthy development as a human right: lessons from developmental science. Neuron 102:724–27
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Casey BJ, Galvam A, Somerville LH. 2016. Beyond simple models of self-control to circuit-based accounts of adolescent behavior: a commentary. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 17:128–30
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Casey BJ, Heller AS, Gee DG, Cohen AO. 2019. Development of the emotional brain. Neurosci. Lett. 693:29–34
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Casey BJ, Taylor-Thompson K, Rubien-Thomas E, Robbins M, Baskin-Sommers A 2020. Healthy development as a human right: insights from developmental neuroscience for youth justice. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 16:203–22
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Casey BJ, Tottenham N, Fossella J. 2002. Clinical, imaging, lesion, and genetic approaches toward a model of cognitive control. Dev. Psychobiol. 40:237–54
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cauffman E, Fine A, Mahler A, Simmons C. 2018. How developmental science influences juvenile justice reform. UC Irvine Law Rev 8:21–40
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Cauffman E, Shulman EP, Steinberg L, Claus E, Banich MT et al. 2010. Age differences in affective decision making as indexed by performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Dev. Psychol. 46:193–207
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Chein J, Albert D, O'Brien L, Uckert K, Steinberg L 2011. Peers increase adolescent risk taking by enhancing activity in the brain's reward circuitry. Dev. Sci. 14:F1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Cleckley HM. 1964. The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby
  34. Cohen AO, Bonnie RJ, Taylor-Thompson K, Casey BJ. 2016a. When does a juvenile become an adult: implications for law and policy. Temple Law Rev 88:769–88
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cohen AO, Breiner K, Steinberg L, Bonnie RJ, Scott ES et al. 2016b. When is an adolescent an adult? Assessing cognitive control in emotional and nonemotional contexts. Psychol. Sci. 27:549–62
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cohen J. 2013. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Cambridge, MA: Academic
  37. Coker KL, Smith PH, Westphal A, Zonana HV, McKee SA. 2014. Crime and psychiatric disorders among youth in the US population: an analysis of the national comorbidity survey—adolescent supplement. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 53:888–98.e2
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Connor DF, Glatt SJ, Lopez ID, Jackson D, Melloni RH Jr 2002. Psychopharmacology and aggression. I: A meta-analysis of stimulant effects on overt/covert aggression-related behaviors in ADHD. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 41:253–61
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Costa PT Jr., McCrae RR, Löckenhoff CE 2019. Personality across the life span. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 70:423–48
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Damian RI, Spengler M, Sutu A, Roberts BW. 2019. Sixteen going on sixty-six: a longitudinal study of personality stability and change across 50 years. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 117:674–95
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Davidow JY, Foerde K, Galvan A, Shohamy D. 2016. An upside to reward sensitivity: the hippocampus supports enhanced reinforcement learning in adolescence. Neuron 92:93–99
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Davidow JY, Insel C, Somerville LH. 2018. Adolescent development of value-guided goal pursuit. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:725–36
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Defoe IN, Dubas JS, Figner B, van Aken MA. 2015. A meta-analysis on age differences in risky decision making: adolescents versus children and adults. Psychol. Bull. 141:48–84
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Dosenbach NU, Nardos B, Cohen AL, Fair DA, Power JD et al. 2010. Prediction of individual brain maturity using fMRI. Science 329:1358–61
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dreyfuss M, Caudle K, Drysdale AT, Johnston NE, Cohen AO et al. 2014. Teens impulsively react rather than retreat from threat. Dev. Neurosci. 36:220–27
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Duell N, Steinberg L, Icenogle G, Chein J, Chaudhary N et al. 2018. Age patterns in risk taking across the world. J. Youth Adolesc. 47:1052–72
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Duvall T. 2017. Jacksonville man's case led to new sentences for juvenile lifers - but he's still behind bars. Florida Times-Union, March 4. https://www.jacksonville.com/news/metro/2017-03-04/jacksonville-man-s-case-led-new-sentences-juvenile-lifers-he-s-still-behind
  48. Edens JF, Campbell JS, Weir JM. 2007. Youth psychopathy and criminal recidivism: a meta-analysis of the psychopathy checklist measures. Law Hum. Behav. 31:53–75
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW. 1974. Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Percept. Psychophys. 16:143–49
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ernst M, Paulus MP 2005. Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical perspective. Biol. Psychiatry 58:597–604
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Farrington DP. 1986. Age and crime. Crime Justice Rev. Res 7189–250
  52. Farrington DP, Loeber R, Howell JC. 2012. Young adult offenders. Criminol. Public Policy 11:729–50
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Figner B, Mackinlay RJ, Wilkening F, Weber EU 2009. Affective and deliberative processes in risky choice: age differences in risk taking in the Columbia Card Task. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 35:709–30
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Fla. Dep. Correct 2021. Corrections offender network. Inmate population information detail: Terrance J Graham. Florida Department of Corrections. http://www.dc.state.fl.us/offenderSearch/detail.aspx?Page=Detail&DCNumber=J25706&TypeSearch=AI
  55. Frick PJ. 2009. Extending the construct of psychopathy to youth: implications for understanding, diagnosing, and treating antisocial children and adolescents. Can. J. Psychiatry 54:803–12
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Frick PJ, Ray JV, Thornton LC, Kahn RE 2014. Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychol. Bull 1401–57
  57. Fu M, Zuo Y. 2011. Experience-dependent structural plasticity in the cortex. Trends Neurosci 34:177–87
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Galvan A, Hare TA, Parra CE, Penn J, Voss H et al. 2006. Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. J. Neurosci. 26:6885–92
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gardner M, Steinberg L. 2005. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study. Dev. Psychol. 41:625–35
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Gee DG, Humphreys KL, Flannery J, Goff B, Telzer EH et al. 2013. A developmental shift from positive to negative connectivity in human amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. J. Neurosci. 33:4584–93
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Geier CF, Terwilliger R, Teslovich T, Velanova K, Luna B. 2010. Immaturities in reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control in adolescence. Cereb. Cortex 20:1613–29
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Graham v. Florida 560 U.S 4808–7412 2010.
  63. Hale G. 2020. Convicted murderer facing lethal injection asks Trump to commute sentence. Indiana Public Media, Novemb. 10: https://indianapublicmedia.org/news/convicted-murdered-facing-lethan-injection-asks-trump-to-commute-sentence.php
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Hare TA, Tottenham N, Galvan A, Voss HU, Glover GH, Casey BJ. 2008. Biological substrates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescence during an emotional go-nogo task. Biol. Psychiatry 63:927–34
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Harris MA, Brett CE, Johnson W, Deary IJ 2016. Personality stability from age 14 to age 77 years. Psychol. Aging 31:862–74
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hawes DJ, Price MJ, Dadds MR. 2014. Callous-unemotional traits and the treatment of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence: a comprehensive review. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 17:248–67
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Hawes SW, Byrd AL, Gonzalez R, Cavanaugh C, Bechtold J et al. 2018. The developmental course of psychopathic features: investigating stability, change, and long-term outcomes. J. Res. Personal. 77:83–89
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Heller AS, Cohen AO, Dreyfuss MF, Casey BJ. 2016. Changes in cortico-subcortical and subcortico-subcortical connectivity impact cognitive control to emotional cues across development. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 11:1910–18
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Icenogle G, Steinberg L, Duell N, Chein J, Chang L et al. 2019. Adolescents’ cognitive capacity reaches adult levels prior to their psychosocial maturity: evidence for a “maturity gap” in a multinational, cross-sectional sample. Law Hum. Behav. 43:69–85
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Insel C, Kastman EK, Glenn CR, Somerville LH 2017. Development of corticostriatal connectivity constrains goal-directed behavior during adolescence. Nat. Commun. 8:1605
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Jackson v. Hobbs 567 U.S 46010–9647 2012.
  72. Kaufmann T, Alnaes D, Doan NT, Brandt CL, Andreassen OA, Westlye LT. 2017. Delayed stabilization and individualization in connectome development are related to psychiatric disorders. Nat. Neurosci. 20:513–15
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kimonis ER, Fleming G, Briggs N, Brouwer-French L, Frick PJ et al. 2019. Parent-child interaction therapy adapted for preschoolers with callous-unemotional traits: an open trial pilot study. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 48:S347–61
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Luna B, Garver KE, Urban TA, Lazar NA, Sweeney JA 2004. Maturation of cognitive processes from late childhood to adulthood. Child Dev 75:1357–72
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lykken DT. 1996. Psychopathy, sociopathy, and crime. Society 34:29–38
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lynam DR, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Loeber R, Stouthamer-Loeber M. 2007. Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 116:155–65
    [Google Scholar]
  77. MacArthur Found. Res. Netw. Law Neurosci 2017. How should justice policy treat young offenders?. Rep., MacArthur Found. Res. Netw. Law Neurosci Chicago: https://www.lawneuro.org/files/adol_dev_brief.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  78. McCord J, Conway K. 2005. Co-offending and patterns of juvenile crime: research in brief. Off. Justice Prog. Rep. NCJ 210360: Natl. Inst. Justice Washington, DC: https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/210360.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  79. McCrae RR, Costa PT 2008. The five-factor theory of personality. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research OP John, RW Robins, LA Pervin 159–81 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  80. McMahon RJ, Witkiewitz K, Kotler JS. 2010. Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 119:752–63
    [Google Scholar]
  81. McRae K, Gross JJ, Weber J, Robertson ER, Sokol-Hessner P et al. 2012. The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 7:11–22
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Miller v. Alabama 567 U.S 46010–9646 2012.
  83. Mills KL, Goddings AL, Clasen LS, Giedd JN, Blakemore SJ. 2014. The developmental mismatch in structural brain maturation during adolescence. Dev. Neurosci. 36:147–60
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Moffitt TE. 2018. Male antisocial behaviour in adolescence and beyond. Nat. Hum. Behav. 2:177–86
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Monk CS, McClure EB, Nelson EE, Zarahn E, Bilder RM et al. 2003. Adolescent immaturity in attention-related brain engagement to emotional facial expressions. NeuroImage 20:420–28
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Montgomery v. Louisiana 577 U.S. __ 14–280 2016.
  87. Muratori P, Milone A, Levantini V, Ruglioni L, Lambruschi F et al. 2019. Six-year outcome for children with ODD or CD treated with the coping power program. Psychiatry Res 271:454–58
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Natl. Res. Counc., Div. Behav. Soc. Sci. Educ., Comm. Law Justice, Comm. Assess. Juv. Justice Reform Bonnie RJ et al. 2013. Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  89. Pattwell SS, Duhoux S, Hartley CA, Johnson DC, Jing D et al. 2012. Altered fear learning across development in both mouse and human. PNAS 109:16318–23
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Pozzi E, Vijayakumar N, Rakesh D, Whittle S. 2021. Neural correlates of emotion regulation in adolescents and emerging adults: a meta-analytic study. Biol. Psychiatry 89:194–204
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Ranganathan P, Pramesh C, Buyse M. 2015. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: clinical versus statistical significance. Perspect. Clin. Res. 6:169–70
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Reckdahl K. 2019. Inmate from Supreme Court case rejected for parole a second time. Juvenile Justice Information Exchange, April 13. https://jjie.org/2019/04/13/inmate-from-supreme-court-case-rejected-for-parole-a-second-time/
  93. Ridderinkhof KR, van der Molen MW, Band GP, Bashore TR. 1997. Sources of interference from irrelevant information: a developmental study. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 65:315–41
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Roberts BW, Mroczek D. 2008. Personality trait change in adulthood. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 17:31–35
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Roberts BW, Walton KE, Viechtbauer W 2006. Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychol. Bull. 132:1–25
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Roberts BW, Wood D 2006. Personality development in the context of the neo-socioanalytic model of personality. Handbook of Personality Development DK Mroczek, TD Little 11–39 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Roper v. Simmons 543 U.S. 551 03–633 2005.
  98. Rudolph MD, Miranda-Dominguez O, Cohen AO, Breiner K, Steinberg L et al. 2017. At risk of being risky: the relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 24:93–106
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Rueda MR, Fan J, McCandliss BD, Halparin JD, Gruber DB et al. 2004. Development of attentional networks in childhood. Neuropsychologia 42:1029–40
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Sampson RJ, Laub JH. 2005. A life-course view of the development of crime. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 602:12–45
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Satterthwaite TD, Wolf DH, Erus G, Ruparel K, Elliott MA et al. 2013. Functional maturation of the executive system during adolescence. J. Neurosci. 33:16249–61
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Sawyer SM, Azzopardi PS, Wickremarathne D, Patton GC 2018. The age of adolescence. Lancet Child Adolesc. Health 2:223–28
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Silva K, Chein J, Steinberg L 2016a. Adolescents in peer groups make more prudent decisions when a slightly older adult is present. Psychol. Sci. 27:322–30
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Silva K, Shulman EP, Chein J, Steinberg L 2016b. Peers increase late adolescents’ exploratory behavior and sensitivity to positive and negative feedback. J. Res. Adolesc. 26:696–705
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Silvers JA, Insel C, Powers A, Franz P, Helion C et al. 2017. vlPFC-vmPFC-amygdala interactions underlie age-related differences in cognitive regulation of emotion. Cereb. Cortex 27:3502–14
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Silvers JA, Shu J, Hubbard AD, Weber J, Ochsner KN 2015. Concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response in adolescence and young adulthood. Dev. Sci. 18:771–84
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Smith AR, Chein J, Steinberg L 2014. Peers increase adolescent risk taking even when the probabilities of negative outcomes are known. Dev. Psychol. 50:1564–68
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Snyder HN. 2012. Arrest in the United States, 1990–2010. Off. Justice Prog. Rep NCJ 239423, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC: https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/aus9010.pdf
  109. Somerville LH. 2016. Searching for signatures of brain maturity: What are we searching for?. Neuron 92:1164–67
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Somerville LH, Hare T, Casey BJ. 2011. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 23:2123–34
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Soto CJ, John OP, Gosling SD, Potter J. 2011. Age differences in personality traits from 10 to 65: big five domains and facets in a large cross-sectional sample. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 100:330–48
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Srivastava S, John OP, Gosling SD, Potter J. 2003. Development of personality in early and middle adulthood: set like plaster or persistent change?. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 84:1041–53
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Steinberg L. 2008. A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Dev. Rev. 28:78–106
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Steinberg L, Albert D, Cauffman E, Banich M, Graham S, Woolard J 2008. Age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity as indexed by behavior and self-report: evidence for a dual systems model. Dev. Psychol. 44:1764–78
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Steinberg L, Cauffman E, Woolard J, Graham S, Banich M 2009a. Are adolescents less mature than adults?: minors’ access to abortion, the juvenile death penalty, and the alleged APA “flip-flop. .” Am. Psychol. 64:583–94
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Steinberg L, Graham S, O'Brien L, Woolard J, Cauffman E, Banich M 2009b. Age differences in future orientation and delay discounting. Child Dev 80:28–44
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Steinberg L, Monahan KC. 2007. Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Dev. Psychol. 43:1531–43
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Streib VL. 1987. Death Penalty for Juveniles Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press
  119. Stroop JR. 1935. Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J. Exp. Psychol. 18:643–62
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sweeten G, Piquero AR, Steinberg L. 2013. Age and the explanation of crime, revisited. J. Youth Adolesc. 42:921–38
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Taylor-Thompson K. 2003. States of mind/states of development. Stanf. Law Policy Rev 14:143–73
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Teslovich T, Mulder M, Franklin NT, Ruberry EJ, Millner A et al. 2014. Adolescents let sufficient evidence accumulate before making a decision when large incentives are at stake. Dev. Sci. 17:59–70
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Thompson v. Oklahoma 487 U.S 10886-6169 1988.
  124. U. N. Dep. Econ. Soc. Aff 2018. Frequently asked questions. United Nations https://www.un.org/development/desa/youth/what-we-do/faq.html
    [Google Scholar]
  125. van den Bos W, Rodriguez CA, Schweitzer JB, McClure SM. 2015. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity. PNAS 112:E3765–74
    [Google Scholar]
  126. van Hoorn J, Shablack H, Lindquist KA, Telzer EH. 2019. Incorporating the social context into neurocognitive models of adolescent decision-making: a neuroimaging meta-analysis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 101:129–42
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Van Leijenhorst L, Zanolie K, Van Meel CS, Westenberg PM, Rombouts SA, Crone EA. 2010. What motivates the adolescent? Brain regions mediating reward sensitivity across adolescence. Cereb. Cortex 20:61–69
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Viding E, Kimonis ER 2018. Callous-unemotional traits. Handbook of Psychopathy CJ Patrick 144–64 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Washburn JJ, Romero EG, Welty LJ, Abram KM, Teplin LA et al. 2007. Development of antisocial personality disorder in detained youths: the predictive value of mental disorders. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 75:221–31
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Weintraub S, Dikmen SS, Heaton RK, Tulsky DS, Zelazo PD et al. 2013. Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology 80:S54–64
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Welner M, Baglivio M, DeLisi M, Guilmette TJ et al. 2019. Homicide and criminal maturity. Rep., Forensic Panel New York:
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Wilkinson S, Waller R, Viding E. 2016. Practitioner review: involving young people with callous unemotional traits in treatment—does it work? A systematic review. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 57:552–65
    [Google Scholar]
  133. World Health Organ 2019. Adolescent health. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/health-topics/adolescent-health#tab=tab_1
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-113250
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-113250
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error