1932

Abstract

Despite sufficient evidence to conclude that maltreatment exposure affects the risk of crime and delinquency, the magnitude and specificity of effects of child maltreatment on crime and delinquency and the mechanisms through which those effects operate remain poorly identified. Key challenges include insufficient attention to the overlap of child maltreatment with various forms of family dysfunction and adversity and a lack of comprehensive measurement of the multiple, often comorbid, forms of child maltreatment. We then consider the potential impacts of the child welfare system on the maltreatment–crime link. Because the child welfare system typically provides voluntary, short-term services of unknown quality, it likely neither increases nor reduces risks of delinquency and crime for most children who are referred or investigated. For the comparatively small (although nominally large and important) subset of children experiencing foster care, impacts on delinquency and crime likely vary by the quality of environments within and after their time in care—issues that, to date, have received too little attention.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-120220
2022-01-13
2024-06-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/criminol/5/1/annurev-criminol-030920-120220.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-120220&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Agnew R. 2001. Building on the foundation of general strain theory: specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. J. Res. Crime Delinquency 38:319–61
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aizer A, Doyle JJ Jr. 2015. Juvenile incarceration, human capital, and future crime: evidence from randomly assigned judges. Q. J. Econ. 130:759–803
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Al CMW, Stams GJJM, Bek MS, Damen EM, Asscher JJ, van der Laan PH. 2012. A meta-analysis of intensive family preservation programs: placement prevention and improvement of family functioning. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 34:1472–79
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alonso-Marsden S, Dodge KA, O'Donnell KJ, Murphy RA, Sato JM, Christopoulos C 2013. Family risk as a predictor of initial engagement and follow-through in a universal nurse home visiting program to prevent child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl 37:8555–65
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Annie E. Casey Found 2013. The kinship diversion debate: policy and practice implications for children, families and child welfare agencies Rep., Annie E. Casey Found. Baltimore, MD: https://www.aecf.org/resources/the-kinship-diversion-debate/
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Annie E. Casey Found 2018. Fostering youth transitions. Rep., Annie E. Casey Found. Baltimore, MD: https://www.aecf.org/resources/fostering-youth-transitions/
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Austin A. 2016. Is prior parental criminal justice involvement associated with child maltreatment? A systematic review. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 68:146–53
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bald A, Chyn E, Hastings JS, Machelett M. 2019. The causal impact of removing children from abusive and neglectful homes NBER Work. Pap 25419
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barth RP. 2001. Policy implications of foster family characteristics. Fam. Relat. 50:16–19
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Barth RP, Jonson-Reid M, Greeson JKP, Drake B, Berrick JD et al. 2020. Outcomes following child welfare services: What are they and do they differ for black children?. J. Public Child Welf. 14:5477–99
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bellamy JL. 2008. Behavioral problems following reunification of children in long-term foster care. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 30:216–28
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Belsky J. 1978. Three theoretical models of child abuse: a critical review. Child Abuse Negl 2:137–49
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Belsky J. 1984. The determinants of parenting: a process model. Child Dev 55:83–96
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Berger LM. 2004. Income, family structure, and child maltreatment risk. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 26:725–48
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Berger LM, Bruch SK, Johnson EI, James S, Rubin D 2009. Estimating the “impact” of out-of-home placement on child well-being: approaching the problem of selection bias. Child Dev 80:1856–76
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Berger LM, Cancian M, Cuesta L, Noyes JL. 2016. Families at the intersection of the criminal justice and child protective services systems. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:171–231
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Berger LM, Cancian M, Han E, Noyes J, Rios-Salas V. 2015. Children's academic achievement and foster care. Pediatrics 135:109–16
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Berger LM, Font SA. 2015. The role of the family and family-centered programs and policies. Future Child 25:155–76
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Berger LM, Waldfogel J. 2011. Economic determinants and consequences of child maltreatment OECD Work. Pap 111 OECD Publ. Paris:
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bernard K, Lind T, Dozier M 2014. Neurobiological consequences of neglect and abuse. The Handbook of Child Maltreatment JE Korbin, RD Krugman 205–24 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bland VJ, Lambie I, Best C. 2018. Does childhood neglect contribute to violent behavior in adulthood? A review of possible links. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 60:126–35
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Block S, Williams LM. 2019. The prosecution of child sexual abuse: a partnership to improve outcomes Natl. Inst. Justice Rep. NCJ 252765 US Dep. Justice Washington, DC: https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/252768.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Brehm ME. 2018. The effects of federal adoption incentive awards for older children on adoptions from U.S. foster care. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 37:301–30
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Bruner C. 2017. ACE, place, race, and poverty: building hope for children. Acad. Pediatr. 17:S123–29
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Buckles KS. 2013. Adoption subsidies and placement outcomes for children in foster care. J. Hum. Resour. 48:596–627
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Capusan AJ, Kuja-Halkola R, Bendtsen P, Viding E, McCrory E et al. 2016. Childhood maltreatment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults: a large twin study. Psychol. Med. 46:2637–46
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cent. Dis. Control Prev 2019. Behavioral risk factor surveillance system ACE data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/ace-brfss.html
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chaffin M, Bonner BL, Hill RF. 2001. Family preservation and family support programs: child maltreatment outcomes across client risk levels and program types. Child Abuse Negl 25:101269–89
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Child Welf. Inf. Gatew 2018. State versus county administration of child welfare services Rep., US Child. Bur. Washington, DC: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/services.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Child Welf. Inf. Gatew 2019a. Parental substance use as child abuse Rep., US Child. Bur Washington, DC: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/parentalsubstanceuse.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Child Welf. Inf. Gatew 2019b. Reasonable efforts to preserve or reunify families and achieve permanency for children Rep., US Child. Bur Washington, DC: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/reunify.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Child Welf. Inf. Gatew 2020. Child witnesses to domestic violence Rep., US Child. Bur. Washington, DC https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/witnessdv.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Child Welf. Inf. Gatew 2018. Adoption assistance by state. Child Welfare Information Gateway. https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/adoption/adopt-assistance/
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cho B, Jackson Y 2016. Self-reported and case file maltreatment: relations to psychosocial outcomes for youth in foster care. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 69:241–47
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cicchetti D, Toth SL. 2016. Child maltreatment and developmental psychopathology: a multilevel perspective. Developmental Psychopathology1–56 New York: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Coohey C. 2003. Defining and classifying supervisory neglect. Child Maltreat 8:214556
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Connell CM, Vanderploeg JJ, Katz KH, Caron C, Saunders L, Tebes JK. 2009. Maltreatment following reunification: predictors of subsequent child protective services contact after children return home. Child Abuse Negl 33:4218–28
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Costello BJ, Laub JH. 2020. Social control theory: the legacy of Travis Hirschi's Causes of Delinquency. Annu. Rev. Criminol. 3:21–41
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Courtney ME, Dworsky A, Brown A, Cary C, Love K, Vorhies V. 2011. Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth: outcomes at age 26. Rep Chapin Hall, Chicago, IL: https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/Midwest-Eval-Outcomes-at-Age-26.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Cross TP, Chuang E, Helton JJ, Lux EA. 2015. Criminal investigations in child protective services cases: an empirical analysis. Child Maltreat 20:104–14
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Cross TP, Walsh WA, Simone M, Jones LM. 2003. Prosecution of child abuse: a meta-analysis of rates of criminal justice decisions. Trauma Violence Abuse 4:323–40
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Currie J, Tekin E. 2012. Understanding the cycle. J. Hum. Resour. 47:509–49
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Cutuli JJ, Goerge RM, Coulton C, Schretzman M, Crampton D et al. 2016. From foster care to juvenile justice: exploring characteristics of youth in three cities. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 67:84–94
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Deblinger E, Runyon MK. 2005. Understanding and treating feelings of shame in children who have experienced maltreatment. Child Maltreat 10:364–76
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dettlaff AJ, Weber K, Pendleton M, Boyd R, Bettencourt B, Burton L. 2020. It is not a broken system, it is a system that needs to be broken: the upEND movement to abolish the child welfare system. J. Public Child Welf. 14:5500–17
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Dinkler L, Lundström S, Gajwani R, Lichtenstein P, Gillberg C, Minnis H. 2017. Maltreatment-associated neurodevelopmental disorders: a co-twin control analysis. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 58:691–701
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF et al. 2004. The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse Negl 28:7771–84
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Doyle JJ Jr. 2007. Child protection and child outcomes: measuring the effects of foster care. Am. Econ. Rev. 97:1583–610
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Doyle JJ Jr. 2008. Child protection and adult crime: using investigator assignment to estimate causal effects of foster care. J. Political Econ. 116:746–70
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Drake B, Jonson-Reid M. 2011. NIS interpretations: race and the national incidence studies of child abuse and neglect. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 33:16–20
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Dubowitz H, Black M, Starr RH Jr., Zuravin S. 1993. A conceptual definition of child neglect. Crim. Justice Behav. 20:8–26
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Duggan A, Caldera D, Rodriguez K, Burrell L, Rohde C, Crowne SS. 2007. Impact of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse. Child Abuse Negl 31:8801–27
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Eastman AL, Foust R, Prindle J, Palmer L, Erlich J et al. 2019. A descriptive analysis of the child protection histories of youth and young adults arrested in California. Child Maltreat 24:324–29
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Edwards F. 2016. Saving children, controlling families: punishment, redistribution, and child protection. Am. Sociol. Rev. 81:575–95
    [Google Scholar]
  55. English D, Thompson R, White CR, Wilson D 2015. Why should child welfare pay more attention to emotional maltreatment?. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 50:53–63
    [Google Scholar]
  56. English DJ. 2002. Childhood victimization and delinquency, adult criminality, and violent criminal behavior: a replication and extension, final report Rep. NCJ 192291 US Dep. Justice Washington, DC: https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/192291.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Felson RB, Staff J. 2006. Explaining the academic performance-delinquency relationship. Criminology 44:299–320
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Finkelhor D. 2020. Trends in adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the United States. Child Abuse Negl 108:104641
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Finkelhor D, Jones L. 2006. Why have child maltreatment and child victimization declined?. J. Soc. Issues 62:4685–715
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Finkelhor D, Shattuck A, Turner HA, Hamby SL. 2014. The lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and sexual assault assessed in late adolescence. J. Adolesc. Health 55:329–33
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Finkelhor D, Turner HA, Shattuck A, Hamby SL. 2015. Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse: results from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. JAMA Pediatr 169:746–54
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Fitton L, Yu R, Fazel S 2020. Childhood maltreatment and violent outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Trauma Violence Abuse 21:754–68
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Fix RL, Nair R. 2020. Racial/ethnic and gender disparities in substantiation of child physical and sexual abuse: influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 116:105186
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Fluke JD, Yuan Y-YT, Hedderson J, Curtis PA. 2003. Disproportionate representation of race and ethnicity in child maltreatment: investigation and victimization. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 25:359–73
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Font S, Cancian M, Berger LM, DiGiovanni A. 2020. Patterns of intergenerational child protective services involvement. Child Abuse Negl 99:104247
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Font S, Gershoff ET 2020a. Foster care: how we can, and should, do more for maltreated children. Soc. Policy Rep. 33:1–40
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Font SA. 2014. Kinship and nonrelative foster care: the effect of placement type on child well-being. Child Dev 85:2074–90
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Font SA. 2020. Data challenges and opportunities in child welfare Rep., Am. Enterp. Inst Washington, DC: https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Data-Challenges-and-Opportunities-in-Child-Welfare.pdf?x91208
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Font SA, Berger LM. 2015. Child maltreatment and children's developmental trajectories in early to middle childhood. Child Dev 86:536–56
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Font SA, Berger LM, Cancian M, Noyes JL. 2018. Permanency and the educational and economic attainment of former foster children in early adulthood. Am. Sociol. Rev. 83:716–43
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Font SA, Berger LM, Slepicka J, Cancian M. 2021. Foster care, permanency, and risk of prison entry. J. Res. Crime Delinquency 58:671054
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Font SA, Gershoff E 2020b. Foster care as a problem and solution. Foster Care and “Best Interests of the Child”: Integrating Research, Policy, and Practice39–58 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Font SA, Maguire-Jack K. 2020a. It's not “just poverty”: educational, social, and economic functioning among young adults exposed to childhood neglect, abuse, and poverty. Child Abuse Negl 101:104356
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Font SA, Maguire-Jack K. 2020b. The scope, nature, and causes of child maltreatment. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 692:26–49
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Font SA, Maguire-Jack K, Dillard R 2020. The decision to substantiate allegations of child maltreatment. Decision Making and Judgment in Child Welfare and Protection: Theory, Research, and Practice JD Fluke, M Lopez, R Benbenishty, EJ Knorth, DJ Baumann 173–93 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Forsman M, Laangström N. 2012. Child maltreatment and adult violent offending: population-based twin study addressing the ‘cycle of violence’ hypothesis. Psychol. Med. 42:1977–83
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Gershoff ET. 2002. Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychol. Bull. 128:539–79
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Giordano PC. 2010. Legacies of Crime: A Follow-Up of the Children of Highly Delinquent Girls and Boys Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Goldsmith DF, Oppenheim D, Wanlass J. 2004. Separation and reunification: using attachment theory and research to inform decisions affecting the placements of children in foster care. Juv. Fam. Court J. 55:21–13
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Green DP, Winik D. 2010. Using random judge assignments to estimate the effects of incarceration and probation on recidivism among drug offenders. Criminology 48:357–87
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Grogan-Kaylor A. 2000. Who goes into kinship care? The relationship of child and family characteristics to placement into kinship foster care. Soc. Work Res. 24:132–41
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Gross M, Baron EJ 2021. Temporary stays and persistent gains: the causal effects of foster care. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ In press https://doi.org/10.1257/app.20200204
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  83. Gupta-Kagan J. 2020. America's hidden foster care system. Stanf. Law Rev. 72:841–913
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Henry BF. 2020. Typologies of adversity in childhood & adulthood as determinants of mental health & substance use disorders of adults incarcerated in US prisons. Child Abuse Negl 99:104251
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Herrenkohl RC, Herrenkohl TI. 2009. Assessing a child's experience of multiple maltreatment types: some unfinished business. J. Fam. Violence 24:485–96
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Hershkowitz I, Lamb ME, Horowitz D. 2007. Victimization of children with disabilities. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 77:629–35
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Hirschi T. 1983. Families and crime. Wilson Q 7:132–39
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Hoeve M, Dubas JS, Eichelsheim VI, van der Laan PH, Smeenk W, Gerris JR. 2009. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: a meta-analysis. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 37:749–75
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Holleran LLB, Vaughan TJ, Vandiver DM. 2016. Juror decision-making in death penalty sentencing when presented with defendant's history of child abuse or neglect. Behav. Sci. Law 34:742–66
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Hyde LW, Waller R, Trentacosta CJ, Shaw DS, Neiderhiser JM et al. 2016. Heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Am. J. Psychiatry 173:903–10
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Inst. Child Dev 2021. Chicago Longitudinal Study Rep., Univ. Minn Minneapolis: https://innovation.umn.edu/cls/
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Ireland TO, Smith CA, Thornberry TP. 2002. Developmental issues in the impact of child maltreatment on later delinquency and drug use. Criminology 40:359–400
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Jackson Y, McGuire A, Tunno AM, Makanui PK. 2019. A reasonably large review of operationalization in child maltreatment research: assessment approaches and sources of information in youth samples. Child Abuse Negl 87:5–17
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Jonson-Reid M, Barth RP 2000. From placement to prison: the path to adolescent incarceration from child welfare supervised foster or group care. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 22:493–516
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Jonson-Reid M, Drake B, Kohl P, Guo S, Brown D et al. 2017. What do we really know about usual care child protective services?. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 82:222–29
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Jonson-Reid M, Kohl PL, Drake B 2012. Child and adult outcomes of chronic child maltreatment. Pediatrics 129:839–45
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Jung H, Herrenkohl TI, Klika JB, Lee JO, Brown EC. 2015. Does child maltreatment predict adult crime? Reexamining the question in a prospective study of gender differences, education, and marital status. J. Interpers. Violence 30:2238–57
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Kellogg ND, Koek W, Nienow SM. 2020. Factors that prevent, prompt, and delay disclosures in female victims of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl 101:104360
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Kim H, Drake B. 2019. Cumulative prevalence of onset and recurrence of child maltreatment reports. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 58:1175–83
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Kim H, Wildeman C, Jonson-Reid M, Drake B. 2017. Lifetime prevalence of investigating child maltreatment among US children. Am. J. Public Health 107:274–80
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Konijn C, Admiraal S, Baart J, van Rooij F, Stams G-J et al. 2019. Foster care placement instability: a meta-analytic review. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 96:483–99
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Kratzer L, Heinz P, Schennach R, Knefel M, Schiepek G et al. 2020. Sexual symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse: a network analysis. Psychol. Med. https:doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720001750
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  103. Lau AS, Leeb RT, English D, Graham JC, Briggs EC et al. 2005. What's in a name? A comparison of methods for classifying predominant type of maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl 29:5533–51
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Laurin J, Wallace C, Draca J, Aterman S, Tonmyr L. 2018. Youth self-report of child maltreatment in representative surveys: a systematic review. Health Promot. Chronic Dis. Prev. Can. 38:37–54
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lee C, Cronley C, White HR, Mun E-Y, Stouthamer-Loeber M, Loeber R. 2012. Racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for adolescent and young adult depression, heavy drinking, and violence. J. Adolesc. Health 50:443–49
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Lemmon JH. 1999. How child maltreatment affects dimensions of juvenile delinquency in a cohort of low-income urban youths. Justice Q 16:357–76
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Litton P. 2005. The “abuse excuse” in capital sentencing trials: Is it relevant to responsibility, punishment, or neither?. Am. Crim. Law Rev. 42:2006–42
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Loomis AM, Feely M, Kennedy S 2020. Measuring self-reported polyvictimization in foster youth research: a systematic review. Child Abuse Negl 107:104588
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Maas C, Herrenkohl TI, Sousa C. 2008. Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth. Trauma Violence Abuse 9:56–67
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Maguire-Jack K, Font SA, Dillard R. 2020. Child protective services decision-making: the role of children's race and county factors. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 90:48–62
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Maguire-Jack K, Lanier P, Johnson-Motoyama M, Welch H, Dineen M. 2015. Geographic variation in racial disparities in child maltreatment: the influence of county poverty and population density. Child Abuse Negl 47:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Makarios MD. 2007. Race, abuse, and female criminal violence. Fem. Criminol. 2:100–16
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Malm K, Allen T 2016. A Qualitative Research Study of Kinship Diversion Practices Washington, DC: Child Trends
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Malvaso CG, Delfabbro P, Day A. 2018. The maltreatment-offending association: a systematic review of the methodological features of prospective and longitudinal studies. Trauma Violence Abuse 19:20–34
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Manly JT, Kim JE, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D. 2001. Dimensions of child maltreatment and children's adjustment: contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Dev. Psychopathol. 13:759–82
    [Google Scholar]
  116. McCloskey LA, Bailey JA. 2000. The intergenerational transmission of risk for child sexual abuse. J. Interpers. Violence 15:1019–35
    [Google Scholar]
  117. McGuigan WM, Pratt CC. 2001. The predictive impact of domestic violence on three types of child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl 25:7869–83
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Mersky JP, Reynolds AJ. 2007. Child maltreatment and violent delinquency: disentangling main effects and subgroup effects. Child Maltreat 12:246–58
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Mersky JP, Topitzes J, Reynolds AJ. 2012. Unsafe at any age: linking childhood and adolescent maltreatment to delinquency and crime. J. Res. Crime Delinquency 49:295–318
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Misheva V, Webbink D, Martin NG. 2017. The effect of child maltreatment on illegal and problematic behaviour: new evidence on the ‘cycle of violence’ using twins data. J. Popul. Econ. 30:1035–67
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Moody G, Cannings-John R, Hood K, Kemp A, Robling M. 2018. Establishing the international prevalence of self-reported child maltreatment: a systematic review by maltreatment type and gender. BMC Public Health 18:1164
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Morgan AB, Lilienfeld SO. 2000. A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 20:113–36
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Mulder TM, Kuiper KC, van der Put CE, Stams G-JJM, Assink M. 2018. Risk factors for child neglect: a meta-analytic review. Child Abuse Negl 77:198–210
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Natl. Res. Counc 2014. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Nellis A. 2016. The color of justice: racial and ethnic disparity in state prisons Rep., Sentencing Proj Washington, DC: https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/color-of-justice-racial-and-ethnic-disparity-in-state-prisons/
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Nelson CA, Zeanah CH, Fox NA, Marshall PJ, Smyke AT, Guthrie D. 2007. Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: the Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Science 318:1937–40
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Noll JG. 2021. Child sexual abuse as a unique risk factor for the development of psychopathology: the compounded convergence of mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 17:439–64
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Noll JG, Shenk CE. 2013. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females. Pediatrics 131:e1181–87
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Noll JG, Trickett PK, Harris WW, Putnam FW. 2009. The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children: descriptive results from a multigenerational study. J. Interpers. Violence 24:424–49
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Norman RE, Byambaa M, De R, Butchart A, Scott J, Vos T. 2012. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Med 9:e1001349
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Nunez N, Dahl MJ, Tang CM, Jensen BL. 2007. Trial venue decisions in juvenile cases: mitigating and extralegal factors matter. Leg. Criminol. Psychol. 12:21–39
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Ogilvie JM, Stewart AL, Chan RCK, Shum DHK. 2011. Neuropsychological measures of executive function and antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis. Criminology 49:1063–107
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Oosterman M, Schuengel C, Wim Slot N, Bullens RA, Doreleijers TA 2007. Disruptions in foster care: a review and meta-analysis. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 29:53–76
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Pa. Dep. Hum. Serv 2019. 2018 child protective services annual report Rep., Pa. Dep. Hum. Serv. Harrisburg, PA: https://www.dhs.pa.gov/docs/OCYF/Documents/2018%20Annual%20Child%20Protective%20Services%20Report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Papalia N, Ogloff JRP, Cutajar M, Mullen PE. 2018. Child sexual abuse and criminal offending: gender-specific effects and the role of abuse characteristics and other adverse outcomes. Child Maltreat 23:399–416
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Pelton LH. 2016. Separating coercion from provision in child welfare: preventive supports should be accessible without conditions attached. Child Abuse Negl 51:427–34
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Plomin R. 2018. Parents matter but they don't make a difference. Psychol. Today Sept. 27. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/blueprint/201809/parents-matter-they-don-t-make-difference
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Putnam-Hornstein E, Needell B, King B, Johnson-Motoyama M. 2013. Racial and ethnic disparities: a population-based examination of risk factors for involvement with child protective services. Child Abuse Negl 37:133–46
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Raz M, Sankaran V. 2019. Opposing family separation policies for the welfare of children. Am. J. Public Health 109:1529–30
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Rebbe R. 2018. What is neglect? State legal definitions in the United States. Child Maltreat 23:303–15
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Reiter S, Bryen DN, Shachar I. 2007. Adolescents with intellectual disabilities as victims of abuse. J. Intellect. Disabil. 11:371–87
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Rivera B, Widom CS. 1990. Childhood victimization and violent offending. Violence Victims 5:19–35
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Roberts DE. 2012. Prison, foster care, and the systemic punishment of black mothers. UCLA Law Rev 59:1474–501
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Roberts K. 2019. Foster care and child welfare PhD Diss Clemson Univ. Clemson, SC:
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Rosen AL, Handley ED, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. 2018. The impact of patterns of trauma exposure among low income children with and without histories of child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl 80:301–11
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Rubin DM, Downes KJ, O'Reilly ALR, Mekonnen R, Luan X, Localio R 2008. Impact of kinship care on behavioral well-being for children in out-of-home care. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 162:550–56
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Runyan DK, Cox CE, Dubowitz H, Newton RR, Upadhyaya M et al. 2005. Describing maltreatment: Do child protective service reports and research definitions agree?. Child Abuse Negl 29:5461–77
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Runyan DK, Curtis PA, Hunter WM, Black MM, Kotch JB et al. 1998. LONGSCAN: a consortium for longitudinal studies of maltreatment and the life course of children. Aggress. Violent Behav. 3:275–85
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Ryan JP, Hong JS, Herz D, Hernandez PM. 2010. Kinship foster care and the risk of juvenile delinquency. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 32:1823–30
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Ryan JP, Marshall JM, Herz D, Hernandez PM. 2008. Juvenile delinquency in child welfare: investigating group home effects. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 30:1088–99
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Ryan JP, Testa MF. 2005. Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency: investigating the role of placement and placement instability. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 27:227–49
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Ryan JP, Williams AB, Courtney ME. 2013. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism. J. Youth Adolesc. 42:454–65
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Sakai C, Lin H, Flores G. 2011. Health outcomes and family services in kinship care: analysis of a national sample of children in the child welfare system. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 165:159–65
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Sedlak AJ, Mettenburg J, Basena M, Peta I, McPherson K et al. 2010. Fourth national incidence study of child abuse and neglect (NIS-4) Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/opre/nis4_report_congress_full_pdf_jan2010.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Sellers R, Harold GT, Thapar A, Neiderhiser JM, Ganiban JM et al. 2020. Examining the role of genetic risk and longitudinal transmission processes underlying maternal parenting and psychopathology and children's ADHD symptoms and aggression: utilizing the advantages of a prospective adoption design. Behav. Genet. 50:247–62
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Shenk CE, Noll JG, Peugh JL, Griffin AM, Bensman HE. 2016. Contamination in the prospective study of child maltreatment and female adolescent health. J. Pediatr. Psychol. 41:37–45
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Shenk CE, Rausch JR, Shores KA, Allen EK, Olson AE 2021. Controlling contamination in child maltreatment research: impact on effect size estimates for child behavior problems measured throughout childhood and adolescence. Dev. Psychopathol. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Smith C, Thornberry TP. 1995. The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent involvement in delinquency. Criminology 33:451–81
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Smith CA, Ireland TO, Thornberry TP. 2005. Adolescent maltreatment and its impact on young adult antisocial behavior. Child Abuse Negl 29:101099–119
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Snyder RL. 2020. Punch after punch, rape after rape, a murderer was made. New York Times Dec. 18. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/18/opinion/sunday/lisa-montgomery-execution.html
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Steffensmeier D, Allan E 1996. Gender and crime: toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 22:459–87
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Stith SM, Liu T, Davies LC, Boykin EL, Alder MC et al. 2009. Risk factors in child maltreatment: a meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggress. Violent Behav. 14:13–29
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Stoltenborgh M, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van Ijzendoorn MH. 2013. The neglect of child neglect: a meta-analytic review of the prevalence of neglect. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 48:345–55
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Stoltenborgh M, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Alink LRA, van IJzendoorn MH. 2015. The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: review of a series of meta-analyses. Child Abuse Rev 24:37–50
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Thornberry TP, Krohn MD, Lizotte AJ. 2021. Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS) Rep., Univ. Albany Albany, NY: https://www.albany.edu/hindelang/ryds.php
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Topitzes J, Mersky JP, Reynolds AJ. 2011. Child maltreatment and offending behavior: gender-specific effects and pathways. Crim. Justice Behav. 38:492–510
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Trickett PK, Noll JG, Putnam FW. 2011. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study. Dev. Psychopathol. 23:453–76
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Turner HA, Vanderminden J, Finkelhor D, Hamby S. 2019. Child neglect and the broader context of child victimization. Child Maltreat 24:265–74
    [Google Scholar]
  169. US Child. Bur 2015. A national look at the use of congregate care in child welfare. Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cb/cbcongregatecare_brief.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  170. US Dep. Health Hum. Serv 1999. Child maltreatment 1999. Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cm99_0.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  171. US Dep. Health Hum. Serv 2006. The AFCARS report: final estimates for FY 1998 through FY 2002 Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cb/afcarsreport12.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  172. US Dep. Health Hum. Serv 2020. The AFCARS report: preliminary FY 2019 estimates as of June 23, 2020 Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cb/afcarsreport27.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  173. US Dep. Health Hum. Serv 2021. Child maltreatment 2019 Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cb/cm2019.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  174. US Dep. Health Hum. Serv 2013. Recent demographic trends in foster care Data Brief 2013-1, ACYF Off. Data Anal. Res. Eval Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cb/data_brief_foster_care_trends1.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  175. US Dep. Justice 2021. Race and ethnicity of violent crime offenders and arrestees, 2018 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 255969, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC: https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/revcoa18.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  176. van Berkel SR, Tucker CJ, Finkelhor D. 2018. The combination of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment on mental health problems and delinquency. Child Maltreat 23:244–53
    [Google Scholar]
  177. van der Kolk BA. 1989. The compulsion to repeat the trauma. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 12:389–411
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Vézina J, Hébert M. 2007. Risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of young women: a review of empirical studies and implications for prevention. Trauma Violence Abuse 8:33–66
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Vidal S, Prince D, Connell CM, Caron CM, Kaufman JS, Tebes JK. 2017. Maltreatment, family environment, and social risk factors: determinants of the child welfare to juvenile justice transition among maltreated children and adolescents. Child Abuse Negl 63:7–18
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Walsh C, MacMillan HL, Jamieson E. 2003. The relationship between parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: findings from the Ontario Health Supplement. Child Abuse Negl 27:121409–25
    [Google Scholar]
  181. White CR, O'Brien K, Pecora PJ, Kessler RC, Sampson N, Hwang I. 2012. Texas foster care alumni study technical report: executive summary Rep., Casey Fam. Prog Seattle, WA: https://caseyfamilypro-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/media/StateFosterCare_TX_es.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Widom CS. 1989. The cycle of violence. Science 244:160–66
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Widom CS 2014. Longterm consequences of child maltreatment. Handbook of Child Maltreatment JE Korbin, RD Krugman 225–47 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Widom CS, White HR. 1997. Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence. Crim. Behav. Mental Health 7:287–310
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Wildeman C, Edwards FR, Wakefield S 2020. The cumulative prevalence of termination of parental rights for US children, 2000–2016. Child Maltreat 25:32–42
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Wildeman C, Emanuel N, Leventhal JM, Putnam-Hornstein E, Waldfogel J, Lee H. 2014. The prevalence of confirmed maltreatment among US children, 2004 to 2011. JAMA Pediatr 168:706–13
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Williams JH, Van Dorn RA, Bright CL, Jonson-Reid M, Nebbitt VE 2010. Child maltreatment and delinquency onset among African American adolescent males. Res. Soc. Work Pract. 20:253–59
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Winokur MA, Holtan A, Batchelder KE. 2018. Systematic review of kinship care effects on safety, permanency, and well-being outcomes. Res. Soc. Work Pract. 28:19–32
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Yi Y, Edwards FR, Wildeman C. 2020. Cumulative prevalence of confirmed maltreatment and foster care placement for US children by race/ethnicity, 2011–2016. Am. J. Public Health 110:704–9
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Yi Y, Wildeman C. 2018. Can foster care interventions diminish justice system inequality?. Future Child 28:37–58
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Young NK, Boles SM, Otero C. 2007. Parental substance use disorders and child maltreatment: overlap, gaps, and opportunities. Child Maltreat 12:137–49
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Yun I, Ball JD, Lim H. 2011. Disentangling the relationship between child maltreatment and violent delinquency: using a nationally representative sample. J. Interpers. Violence 26:88–110
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Zeanah CH, Humphreys KL, Fox NA, Nelson CA. 2017. Alternatives for abandoned children: insights from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Curr. Opin. Psychol. Parent. 15:182–88
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Zingraff MT, Leiter J, Myers KA, Johnsen MC. 1993. Child maltreatment and youthful problem behavior. Criminology 31:173–202
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-criminol-030920-120220
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error