The unprecedented growth of the penal system in the United States has motivated an expansive volume of research on the collateral consequences of punishment. In this review, we take stock of what is known about these collateral consequences, particularly in the domains of health, employment, housing, debt, civic involvement, families, and communities. Yet the full reckoning of the formal and informal consequences of mass incarceration and the tough-on-crime era is hindered by a set of thorny challenges that are both methodological and theoretical in nature. We examine these enduring challenges, which include () the importance of minimizing selection bias, () consideration of treatment heterogeneity, and () identification of causal mechanisms underlying collateral consequences. We conclude the review with a focused discussion on promising directions for future research, including insights into data infrastructure, opportunities for policy tests, and suggestions for expanding the field of inquiry.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Agan AY, Starr SB. 2017. Ban the box, criminal records, and statistical discrimination: a field experiment. Q. J. Econ. In press
  2. Alexander M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness New York: New Press
  3. Am. Bar Assoc. 2013. National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Conviction Chicago: ABA https://niccc.csgjusticecenter.org/
  4. Andersen LH. 2016. How children's educational outcomes and criminality vary by duration and frequency of paternal incarceration. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:149–70 [Google Scholar]
  5. Andersen LH, Wildeman C. 2015. Measuring the effect of probation and parole officers on labor market outcomes and recidivism. J. Quant. Criminol. 31:629–52 [Google Scholar]
  6. Apel R. 2016. The effects of jail and prison confinement on cohabitation and marriage. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:103–26 [Google Scholar]
  7. Apel R, Sweeten G. 2010. The impact of incarceration on employment during the transition to adulthood. Soc. Probl. 57:448–79 [Google Scholar]
  8. Berger LM, Cancian M, Cuesta L, Noyes JL. 2016. Families at the intersection of the criminal justice and child protective services systems. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:171–94 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bersani B. 2014. An examination of first and second generation immigrant offending trajectories. Justice Q 31:315–43 [Google Scholar]
  10. Braman D. 2004. Doing Time on the Outside: Incarceration and Family Life in Urban America Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. Mich. Press
  11. Brame R, Bushway S, Paternoster R, Turner MG. 2014. Demographic patterns of cumulative arrest prevalence by ages 18 and 23. Crime Delinq 60:471–86 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brayne S. 2014. Surveillance and system avoidance: criminal justice contact and institutional attachment. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:367–91 [Google Scholar]
  13. Breen R, Choi S, Holm A. 2015. Heterogeneous causal effects and sample selection bias. Sociol. Sci. 2:351–69 [Google Scholar]
  14. Butcher KF, Piehl AM. 1998. Cross-city evidence on the relationship between immigration and crime. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 17:457–93 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carson EA, Anderson E. 2016. Prisoners in 2015 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 250229, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  16. Carson EA, Mulako-Wangota J. 2017. Corrections statistical analysis tool (CSAT): prisoners Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=nps [Google Scholar]
  17. Cho RM. 2009. The impact of maternal incarceration on children's educational achievement: results from Chicago public schools. J. Hum. Resourc. 44:772–97 [Google Scholar]
  18. Clear TR. 2007. Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  19. Comfort M. 2007. Punishment beyond the legal offender. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 3:271–84 [Google Scholar]
  20. Comfort M. 2008. Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  21. Crewe B. 2009. The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  22. Dallaire DH, Ciccone A, Wilson LC. 2010. Teachers’ experiences with and expectations of children of incarcerated parents. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 31:281–90 [Google Scholar]
  23. Dobbie W, Goldin J, Yang C. 2016. The effects of pre-trial detention on conviction, future crime, and employment: evidence from randomly assigned judges Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Work. Pap. No. 22511 Cambridge, MA:
  24. Doleac JL, Hansen B. 2016. Doesban the boxhelp or hurt low-skilled workers? Statistical discrimination and employment outcomes when criminal histories are hidden Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Work. Pap. No. 22469 Cambridge, MA: [Google Scholar]
  25. Drakulich KM, Crutchfield RD, Matsueda RL, Rose K. 2012. Instability, informal control, and criminogenic situations: community effects of returning prisoners. Crim. Law Soc. Change 57:493–519 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dreby J. 2015. Every Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
  27. Durlauf SN, Nagin DS. 2011. Imprisonment and crime: Can both be reduced?. Criminol. Public Policy 10:13–54 [Google Scholar]
  28. Durose MR, Cooper AD, Snyder HN. 2014. Recidivism of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005: patterns from 2005 to 2010 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 244205, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  29. Eason JM. 2017. Big House on the Prairie: Rise of the Rural Ghetto and Prison Proliferation Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  30. Eith C, Durose MR. 2011. Contacts between police and the public, 2008 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 234599, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  31. Fader JJ. 2013. Falling Back: Incarceration and Transitions to Adulthood Among Urban Youth New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  32. Foster H, Hagan J. 2015. Punishment regimes and the multilevel effects of parental incarceration: intergenerational, intersectional, and interinstitutional models of social inequality and systemic exclusion. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 41:135–58 [Google Scholar]
  33. Freeman RB. 1992. Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths. Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunities G Peterson, W Vroman 201–37 Washington, DC: Urban Inst. Press [Google Scholar]
  34. Gaes GG, Camp SD. 2009. Unintended consequences: experimental evidence for the criminogenic effect of prison security level placement on post-release recidivism. J. Exp. Criminol. 5:139–62 [Google Scholar]
  35. Garland D. 2001a. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  36. Garland D. 2001b. The meaning of mass imprisonment. Punishm. Soc. 3:5–7 [Google Scholar]
  37. Geller A, Cooper CE, Garfinkel I, Schwartz-Soicher O, Mincy RB. 2012. Beyond absenteeism: father incarceration and child development. Demography 49:49–76 [Google Scholar]
  38. Geller A, Curtis MA. 2011. A sort of homecoming: incarceration and housing insecurity of urban men. Soc. Sci. Res. 40:1196–213 [Google Scholar]
  39. Geller A, Jaeger K, Pace GT. 2016. Surveys, records, and the study of incarceration in families. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:22–43 [Google Scholar]
  40. Giordano PC. 2010. Legacies of Crime: A Follow-Up of Children of Highly Delinquent Girls and Boys New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  41. Goffman A. 2014. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press
  42. Gottfredson MR, Hirschi T. 1990. A General Theory of Crime Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press
  43. Gottschalk M. 2015. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  44. Hagan J, Leal D, Rodriguez N. 2015. Deporting social capital: implications for immigrant communities in the United States. Migr. Stud. 3:370–92 [Google Scholar]
  45. Harding DJ, Morenoff JD, Herbert C. 2013. Home is hard to find: neighborhoods, institutions, and the residential trajectories of returning prisoners. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 647:214–36 [Google Scholar]
  46. Harris A. 2016. A Pound of Flesh: Monetary Sanctions as a Permanent Punishment for Poor People New York: Russell Sage Found.
  47. Haskins AR. 2014. Unintended consequences: effects of paternal incarceration on school readiness and later special education placement. Sociol. Sci. 1:141–58 [Google Scholar]
  48. Haskins AR, Jacobsen WC. 2017. Schools as surveilling institutions? Paternal incarceration, system avoidance, and parental involvement in schooling. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:657–84 [Google Scholar]
  49. Herbert CW, Morenoff JD, Harding DJ. 2015. Homelessness and housing insecurity among former prisoners. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 1:44–79 [Google Scholar]
  50. Holzer HJ, Raphael S, Stoll MA. 2006. Perceived criminality, criminal background checks, and racial hiring practices of employers. J. Law Econ. 49:451–80 [Google Scholar]
  51. Inter-Am. Comm. Hum. Rights. 2015. Refugees and Migrants in the United States: Families and Unaccompanied Children Washington, DC: Inter-Am. Comm. Hum. Rights
  52. Jacobs J. 1977. Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Society Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  53. Jacobs JB. 2015. The Eternal Criminal Record Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  54. Johnson E, Waldfogel J. 2004. Children of incarcerated parents: multiple risks and children's living arrangements. Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration, ME Pattillo, DF Weiman, B Western 97–131 New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  55. Johnson R, Raphael S. 2009. The effects of male incarceration dynamics on acquired immune deficiency syndrome infection rates among African American women and men. J. Law Econ. 52:251–93 [Google Scholar]
  56. Johnson R, Raphael S. 2012. How much crime reduction does the marginal prisoner buy?. J. Law Econ. 55:275–310 [Google Scholar]
  57. Kaebel D, Glaze LE. 2016. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 250374, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC: [Google Scholar]
  58. Kirk DS. 2006. Examining the divergence across self-report and official data sources on inferences about the adolescent life course of crime. J. Quant. Criminol. 22:107–29 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kirk DS. 2015. A natural experiment of the consequences of concentrating former prisoners in the same neighborhoods. PNAS 112:6943–48 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kirk DS. 2016. Prisoner reentry and the reproduction of legal cynicism. Soc. Probl. 63:222–43 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kirk DS, Papachristos AV. 2011. Cultural mechanisms and the persistence of neighborhood violence. Am. J. Sociol. 116:1190–233 [Google Scholar]
  62. Kirk DS, Papachristos AV, Fagan J, Tyler TR. 2012. The paradox of law enforcement in immigrant communities: Does tough immigration enforcement undermine public safety?. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 641:79–98 [Google Scholar]
  63. Kirk DS, Sampson RJ. 2013. Juvenile arrest and collateral educational damage in the transition to adulthood. Sociol. Educ. 86:36–62 [Google Scholar]
  64. Kling J. 2006. Incarceration length, employment and earnings. Am. Econ. Rev. 96:863–76 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kohler-Hausmann I. 2013. Misdemeanor justice: control without conviction. Am. J. Sociol. 119:351–93 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kornfield R, Bloom HS. 1999. Measuring program impacts on earnings and employment: Do unemployment insurance wage reports from employers agree with surveys of individuals?. J. Labor Econ. 17:168–97 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kreager DA, Schaefer DR, Bouchard M, Haynie DL, Wakefield S. et al. 2015. Toward a criminology of inmate networks. Justice Q 33:1000–28 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kruttschnitt C. 2010. The paradox of women's imprisonment. Daedalus 139:32–42 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kruttschnitt C, Gartner R. 2005. Marking Time in the Golden State: Women's Imprisonment in California Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press
  70. Lageson S. 2017. Crime data, the internet, and free speech: an evolving legal consciousness. Law Soc. Rev. 51:8–41 [Google Scholar]
  71. Lee H, McCormick T, Hicken M, Wildeman C. 2015. Racial inequalities and connectedness to imprisoned individuals in the United States. Du Bois Rev 12:269–82 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lee H, Wildeman C, Wang EA, Matsuko N, Jackson JS. 2014. A heavy burden? The cardiovascular health consequences of having a family member incarcerated. Am. J. Public Health 104:421–27 [Google Scholar]
  73. Lerman A, Weaver V. 2014. Arresting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of American Crime Control Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press
  74. Levitt S. 1996. The effect of prison population size on crime: evidence from prison overcrowding and litigation. Q. J. Econ. 111:319–51 [Google Scholar]
  75. Liedka RV, Piehl AM, Useem B. 2006. The crime-control effect of incarceration: Does scale matter?. Criminol. Public Policy 5:245–76 [Google Scholar]
  76. Light MT, Massoglia M, King RD. 2014. Citizenship and punishment: the salience of national membership in U.S. criminal courts. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:825–47 [Google Scholar]
  77. Listwan SJ, Sullivan CJ, Agnew R, Cullen FT, Colvin M. 2011. The pains of imprisonment revisited: the impact of strain on inmate recidivism. Justice Q 30:144–68 [Google Scholar]
  78. Loeffler C. 2013. Does imprisonment alter the life course? Evidence on crime and employment from a natural experiment. Criminology 51:137–66 [Google Scholar]
  79. Loughran TA, Mulvey EP, Schubert CA, Fagan J, Piquero AR, Losoya SH. 2009. Estimating a dose-response relationship between length of stay and future recidivism in serious juvenile offenders. Criminology 47:699–740 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lynch M. 2016. Hard Bargains: The Coercive Power of Drug Laws in Federal Court New York: Russell Sage Found.
  81. Lyngstad TH, Skardhamar T. 2011. Nordic register data and their untapped potential for criminological research. Crime Justice 40:613–45 [Google Scholar]
  82. Manza J, Uggen C. 2006. Locked out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  83. Massoglia M, Firebaugh G, Warner C. 2013. Racial variation in the effect of incarceration on neighborhood attainment. Am. Sociol. Rev. 78:142–65 [Google Scholar]
  84. Massoglia M, Pridemore WA. 2015. Incarceration and health. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 41:291–310 [Google Scholar]
  85. Massoglia M, Remster B, King RD. 2011. Stigma or separation? Understanding the incarceration-divorce relationship. Soc. Forces 90:133–55 [Google Scholar]
  86. Mauer M, King RS. 2007. Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration by Race and Ethnicity Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj.
  87. Mears DP, Cochran JC, Cullen FT. 2015. Incarceration heterogeneity and its implications for assessing the effectiveness of imprisonment on recidivism. Crim. Justice Policy Rev. 26:691–712 [Google Scholar]
  88. Menjivar C, Abrego LJ. 2012. Legal violence: immigration law and the lives of Central American immigrants. Am. J. Sociol. 117:1380–421 [Google Scholar]
  89. Minton TD, Zeng Z. 2016. Jail inmates in 2015 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 250394, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  90. Morenoff JD, Harding DJ. 2014. Incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 40:411–29 [Google Scholar]
  91. Muller C, Wildeman C. 2016. Geographic variation in the cumulative risk of imprisonment and parental incarceration in the United States. Demography 53:1499–509 [Google Scholar]
  92. Murphey D, Cooper PM. 2015. Parents Behind Bars: What Happens to their Children? Washington, DC: Child Trends
  93. Murray J, Loeber R, Pardini D. 2012. Parental involvement in the criminal justice system and the development of youth theft, marijuana use, depression, and poor academic performance. Criminology 50:255–302 [Google Scholar]
  94. Natl. Acad. Sci. Eng. Med. 2017. Innovations in Federal Statistics: Combining Data Sources While Protecting Privacy Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  95. NRC (Natl. Res. Counc.). 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  96. Office Atty. Gen. 2017. Department charging and sentencing policy Washington, DC: US Dep. Justice https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/965896/download
  97. Ousey GC, Kubrin CE. 2017. Immigration and crime: assessing a contentious issue. Annu. Rev. Criminol. 1:63–84 [Google Scholar]
  98. Padilla v. Kentucky, 130 S. Ct 1473, 1480 2010.
  99. Pager D. 2003. The mark of a criminal record. Am. J. Sociol. 108:937–75 [Google Scholar]
  100. Pager D. 2007. Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press
  101. Petersilia J. 2014. California prison downsizing and its impact on local criminal justice systems. Harv. Law Policy Rev. 8:327–58 [Google Scholar]
  102. Petersilia J, Cullen FT. 2015. Liberal but not stupid: Meeting the promise of downsizing prisons. Stanford J. Crim. Law Policy 2:1–43 [Google Scholar]
  103. Pettit B, Lyons C. 2007. Status and the stigma of incarceration: the labor-market effects of incarceration by race, class, and criminal involvement. In Barriers to Reentry: The Labor Market for Released Prisoners in Post-Industrial America S Bushway, M Stoll, D Weiman 203–26 New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  104. Pettit B, Western B. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. Am. Sociol. Rev. 69:151–69 [Google Scholar]
  105. Pfaff J. 2017. Locked In: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration and How to Achieve Real Reform New York: Basic Books
  106. Phelps M. 2011. Rehabilitation in the punitive era: the gap between rhetoric and reality in US prison programs. Law Soc. Rev. 45:33–68 [Google Scholar]
  107. Phelps M. 2016. Possibilities and contestation in 21st-century US criminal justice downsizing. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 12:153–70 [Google Scholar]
  108. Phelps MS. 2017. Mass probation: toward a more robust theory of state variation in punishment. Punishm. Soc. 19:53–73 [Google Scholar]
  109. Porter LC, King R. 2015. Absent fathers or absent variables? A new look at paternal incarceration and delinquency. J. Crime Delinq. 52:414–43 [Google Scholar]
  110. Prewitt K. 2010. Science starts not after measurement, but with measurement. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 631:7–16 [Google Scholar]
  111. Raaijmakers E, Loughran TA, de Keijser J, Nieuwbeerta P, Dirkzwager A. 2017. Exploring the relationship between subjectively experienced severity of imprisonment and recidivism. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 54:3–28 [Google Scholar]
  112. Ramakers A, Apel R, Nieuwbeerta P, Dirkzwager A, Wilsem JV. 2014. Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects. Criminology 52:499–527 [Google Scholar]
  113. Raphael S, Stoll MA. 2009. Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom New York: Russell Sage Found.
  114. Reiter K. 2016. 23/7: Pelican Bay Prison and the Rise of Long Term Solitary Confinement New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  115. Rios V. 2011. Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys New York: NYU Press
  116. Rios V, Carney N, Kelekay J. 2017. Ethnographies of race, crime, and justice: toward a sociological double-consciousness. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 43:493–513 [Google Scholar]
  117. Roberts B, Menjivar C, Rodriguez N. 2017. Deportation and Return in a Border-Restricted World: Experiences in Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras New York: Springer Press
  118. Rodriguez M, Avery B. 2017. Ban the Box: U.S. Cities, Counties, and States to Adopt Fair Hiring Policies. New York: Natl. Employ. Law Proj http://www.nelp.org/content/uploads/Ban-the-Box-Fair-Chance-State-and-Local-Guide.pdf
  119. Ryo E. 2017a. Fostering legal cynicism through immigration detention. South. Calif. Law Rev. In press
  120. Ryo E. 2017b. Legal attitudes of immigrant detainees. Law Soc. Rev. 51:99–131 [Google Scholar]
  121. Sampson RJ. 2011. The incarceration ledger: toward a new era in assessing societal consequences. Criminol. Public Policy 10:819–28 [Google Scholar]
  122. Sampson RJ, Loeffler C. 2010. Punishment's place: the local concentration of mass incarceration. Daedalus 139:20–31 [Google Scholar]
  123. Sampson RJ, Morenoff JD, Raudenbush S. 2005. Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence. Am. J. Public Health 95:224–32 [Google Scholar]
  124. Schaefer DR, Bouchard M, Young JTN, Kreager DA. 2017. Friends in locked places: an investigation of prison inmate network structure. Soc. Netw. 51:88–103 [Google Scholar]
  125. Schwartz RD, Skolnick J. 1962. Two studies of legal stigma. Soc. Probl. 10:133–42 [Google Scholar]
  126. Schwartz-Soicher O, Geller A, Garfinkel I. 2011. The effect of paternal incarceration on material hardship. Soc. Serv. Rev. 85:447–73 [Google Scholar]
  127. Shannon SKS, Uggen C, Schnittker J, Thompson M, Wakefield S, Massoglia M. 2017. The growth, scope, and spatial distribution of people with felony records in the United States, 1948–2010.. Demography In press
  128. Siegel J. 2011. Disrupted Childhoods: Children of Women in Prison New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  129. Simon J. 2000. The “society of captives” in the era of hyper-incarceration. Theor. Criminol. 4:285–308 [Google Scholar]
  130. Simon J. 2007. Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  131. Skarbeck D. 2014. The Social Order of the Underworld: How Prison Gangs Govern the American Penal System New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  132. Stuart F. 2016. Down, Out, and Under Arrest: Policing and Everyday Life on Skid Row Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  133. Sugie NF. 2012. Punishment and welfare: Paternal incarceration and families’ receipt of public assistance. Soc. Forces 90:1403–27 [Google Scholar]
  134. Sugie NF. 2015. Chilling effects: Diminished political participation among partners of formerly incarcerated men. Soc. Probl. 62:550–71 [Google Scholar]
  135. Sugie NF, Turney K. 2017. Beyond incarceration: criminal justice contact and mental health. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:719–43 [Google Scholar]
  136. Sullivan CJ. 2009. Criminal specialization. 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook JM Miller 658–65 Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE [Google Scholar]
  137. Sykes BL, Pettit B. 2014. Mass incarceration, family complexity, and the reproduction of childhood disadvantage. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 654:127–49 [Google Scholar]
  138. Sykes G. 1958/2007. The Society of Captives: A Study of Maximum Security Prisons Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  139. Turney K. 2015. Liminal men: Incarceration and relationship dissolution. Soc. Probl. 62:499–528 [Google Scholar]
  140. Turney K. 2016. Conducting in-depth interviews with jailed fathers and their family members: Feasibility and challenges Presented at Natl. Sci. Found. Workshop Imprisonment Reentry, Rutgers Sch. Crim. Justice Newark:
  141. Turney K, Wildeman C. 2015. Detrimental for some? Heterogeneous effects of maternal incarceration on child wellbeing. Criminol. Public Policy 14:125–56 [Google Scholar]
  142. UK Minist. Justice. 2017. Proven re-offending statistics quarterly bulletin, April 2014 to March 2015 London: UK Minist. Justice
  143. Univ. Albany. 2017. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Albany, NY: Hindelang Crim. Justice Res. Cent http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/
  144. US Cust. Bord. Prot. 2016. United States border patrol southwest family unit subject and unaccompanied alien children apprehensions fiscal year 2016. Statement by Secretary Johnson on Southwest Border Security US Cust. Bord. Prot Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur. [Google Scholar]
  145. US Dep. Homel. Secur. 2004. 2003 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics Washington, DC: Office of Immigr. Stat https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_2003.pdf
  146. US Dep. Homel. Secur. 2008. 2007 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics Washington, DC: Office of Immigr. Stat https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_2007.pdf
  147. US Dep. Homel. Secur. 2016a. 2015 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics Washington, DC: Office of Immigr. Stat https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_2015.pdf
  148. US Dep. Homel. Secur. 2016b. Immigration Enforcement Actions: 2014 Washington, DC: Office Immigr. Stat https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Enforcement_Actions_2014.pdf
  149. US Dep. Homel. Secur. 2017. Memorandum: Enforcement of Immigration Laws to Serve the National Interest Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/3469363/Trump-Immigration-Enforcement-Policies.pdf
  150. US Dep. Hous. Urban Dev. 2016. Application of Fair Housing Act Standards to the Use of Criminal Records by Providers of Housing and Real Estate–Related Transactions Washington, DC: US Dep. Hous. Urban Dev https://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/documents/huddoc?id=HUD_OGCGuidAppFHAStandCR.pdf
  151. US Dep. Justice. 2000. 1998 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Washington, DC: Immigration and Naturalization Service https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_1998.pdf
  152. US Dep. Justice. 2002a. 1999 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Washington, DC: Immigration and Naturalization Service. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_1999.pdf
  153. US Dep. Justice. 2002b. 2000 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Washington, DC:: Immigration and Naturalization Service https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_2000.pdf
  154. Vuolo M, Lageson S, Uggen C. 2017. Criminal record questions in the era of ban the box. Criminol. Public Policy 16:139–65 [Google Scholar]
  155. Wacquant L. 2009. Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  156. Wakefield S, Uggen C. 2010. Incarceration and stratification. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 36:387–406 [Google Scholar]
  157. Wakefield S, Wildeman C. 2013. Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  158. Walker ML. 2016. Race making in a penal institution. Am. J. Sociol. 121:1051–78 [Google Scholar]
  159. Walmsley R. 2016. World Prison Population List London: Int. Cent. Prison Stud, 11th ed..
  160. Weaver VM, Hacker JS, Wildeman C. 2014. Detaining democracy? Criminal justice and American civic life. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:6–21 [Google Scholar]
  161. Wermink H, Nieuwbeerta P, Ramakers A, de Keijser J, Dirkzwager A. 2017. Short-term effects of imprisonment length on recidivism in the Netherlands. Crime Delinq In press
  162. Western B. 2002. The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. Am. Sociol. Rev. 67:477–98 [Google Scholar]
  163. Western B. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America New York: Russell Sage Found.
  164. Western B. 2015. Lifetimes of violence in a sample of recently released prisoners. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 1:14–30 [Google Scholar]
  165. Western B, Pettit B. 2005. Black-white wage inequality, employment rates, and incarceration. Am. J. Sociol. 111:553–78 [Google Scholar]
  166. Western B, Pettit B. 2010. Collateral Costs: Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility Washington, DC: Pew Charit. Trusts
  167. Wildeman C. 2009. Parental imprisonment, the prison boom, and the concentration of childhood disadvantage. Demography 46:265–80 [Google Scholar]
  168. Wildeman C, Muller C. 2012. Mass imprisonment and inequality in health and family life. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 8:11–30 [Google Scholar]
  169. Wildeman C, Scardamalia K, Walsh EG, O'Brien RL, Brew B. 2017. Paternal incarceration and teachers’ expectations of students Work. paper, Dep. Policy Anal. Manag., Cornell Univ.
  170. Wildeman C, Turney K. 2014. Positive, negative, or null? The effects of maternal incarceration on children's behavioral problems. Demography 51:1041–68 [Google Scholar]
  171. Wildeman C, Turney K, Yi Y. 2016. Paternal incarceration and family functioning: variation across federal, state, and local facilities. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:80–97 [Google Scholar]
  172. Wildeman C, Wakefield S. 2014. The long arm of the law: the concentration of incarceration in families in the era of mass incarceration. J. Gender Race Justice 17:367–89 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error