A robust scientific literature has established the negative psychological effects of solitary confinement. The empirical findings are supported by a theoretical framework that underscores the importance of social contact to psychological as well as physical well-being. In essence, human beings have a basic need to establish and maintain connections to others and the deprivation of opportunities to do so has a range of deleterious consequences. These scientific conclusions, as well as concerns about the high cost and lack of any demonstrated penological purpose that solitary confinement reliably serves, have led to an emerging consensus among correctional as well as professional, mental health, legal, and human rights organizations to drastically limit the practice.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. ACLU Colo. 2011. The High Cost of Solitary Confinement Denver, CO: ACLU
  2. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2012. Solitary Confinement of Juvenile Offenders Washington, DC: AACAP https://www.aacap.org/aacap/Policy_Statements/2012/Solitary_Confinement_of_Juvenile_Offenders.aspx
  3. Am. Bar Assoc. 2011. ABA Standards for Criminal Justice: Treatment of Prisoners Washington, DC: Am. Bar Assoc, 3rd ed. https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publications/criminal_justice_standards/Treatment_of_Prisoners.authcheckdam.pdf
  4. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. 2012. Position Statement on Segregation of Prisoners with Mental Illness Arlington, VA: APA
  5. Am. Psychol. Assoc. 2016. Solitary Confinement of Juvenile Offenders Washington, DC: APA https://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/cyf/solitary.pdf
  6. Am. Public Health Assoc. 2013. Solitary Confinement as a Public Health Issue Washington, DC: APHA https://apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2014/07/14/13/30/solitary-confinement-as-a-public-health-issue
  7. Arrigo B, Bullock J. 2008. The psychological effects of solitary confinement on prisoners in supermax units: reviewing what we know and what should change. Int. J. Offender Ther. Comp. Criminol. 52:622–40 [Google Scholar]
  8. Ashker v. Brown, 4:09-cv-05796-CW (ND Cal 2014.
  9. Assoc. State Correct. Adm., Yale Law Sch., Arthur Liman Public Interest Progr. 2015. Time-in-cell: the ASCA-Liman 2014 National Survey of Administrative Segregation in Prison ASCA-Liman Rep., Yale Law Sch. New Haven, CT: https://law.yale.edu/system/files/area/center/liman/document/asca-liman_administrativesegregationreport.pdf
  10. Assoc. State Correct. Adm., Yale Law Sch., Arthur Liman Public Interest Progr. 2016. Aiming to reduce time-in-cell: reports from correctional systems on the numbers of prisoners in restricted housing and on the potential of policy changes to bring about reforms ASCA-Liman Rep., Yale Law Sch. New Haven, CT: https://law.yale.edu/system/files/area/center/liman/document/aimingtoreducetic.pdf
  11. Barte H. 1989. L'Isolement carceral. Perspect. Psychiatr. 28:252–55 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bastian B, Haslam N. 2010. Excluded from humanity: the dehumanizing effects of social ostracism. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46:107–13 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bauer M, Priebe S, Haring B, Adamczak K. 1993. Long-term mental sequelae of political imprisonment in East Germany. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 181:257–62 [Google Scholar]
  14. Beck A. 2015. Use of restrictive housing in U.S. prisons and jails, 2011–2012 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 249209, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  15. Bize R, Johnson J, Plotnikoff R. 2007. Physical activity level and health-related quality of life in the general adult population: a systematic review. Prev. Med. 45:6401–15 [Google Scholar]
  16. Briggs C, Sundt J, Castellano T. 2003. The effect of supermax security prisons on aggregate levels of institutional violence. Criminology 41:1341–76 [Google Scholar]
  17. Brodsky S, Scogin F. 1988. Inmates in protective custody: First data on emotional effects. Forensic Rep 1:267–280 [Google Scholar]
  18. Buntin J. 2010. Exodus: how America's reddest state—and its most notorious prison—became a model of corrections reform. Governing 23:20–27 [Google Scholar]
  19. Butler H, Steiner B, Makarios M, Travis L. 2017. Assessing the effects of exposure to supermax confinement on offender postrelease behaviors. Prison J 97:3275–95 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cacioppo S, Cacioppo J. 2012. Decoding the invisible forces of social connections. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 6:511–7 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cascio C. 2010. Somatosensory processes in neurodevelopmental disorders. J. Neurodev. Disord. 2:62–69 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cloyes K, Lovell D, Allen D, Rhodes L. 2006. Assessment of psychosocial impairment in a supermaximum security unit sample. Crim. Justice Behav. 33:760–781 [Google Scholar]
  23. Colvin M. 1992. The Penitentiary in Crisis: From Accommodation to Riot in New Mexico Albany, NY: State Univ. New York Press
  24. Comm. Crime Prev. Crim. Justice. 2015. United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners New York: UN Econ. Soc. Counc.
  25. Cormier B, Williams P. 1966. Excessive deprivation of liberty. Can. Psychiatr. Assoc. J. 11:470–84 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cullen F. 1995. Assessing the penal harm movement. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 32:338–58 [Google Scholar]
  27. DeWall C. 2013. Looking back and forward: lessons learned and moving forward. The Oxford Handbook of Social Exclusion C DeWall 301–3 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  28. DeWall N, Deckman T, Pond R, Bonser I. 2011. Belongingness as a core personality trait: how social exclusion influences social functioning and personality expression. J. Personal. 79:979–1012 [Google Scholar]
  29. Dobson S, Upadhyaya S, Conyers I, Raghavan R. 2002. Touch in the care of people with profound and complex needs. J. Learn. Disabil. 6:351–62 [Google Scholar]
  30. Egelko R. 2016. Isolation of inmates cut greatly. San Francisco Chronicle Oct. 25 C1, C4.
  31. Field T. 2002. Violence and touch deprivation in adolescents. Adolescence 37:735–49 [Google Scholar]
  32. Field T. 2005. Touch deprivation and aggression against self among adolescents. Developmental Psychobiology of Aggression D Stoff, E Susman 117–40 New York: Cambridge [Google Scholar]
  33. Fiorillo D, Sabatini F. 2011. Quality and quantity: the role of social interactions in self-reported individual health. Soc. Sci. Med. 73:1644–52 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fischer A, Manstead A, Zaalberg RR. 2003. Social influences on the emotion process. European Review of Social Psychology 14 M Hewstone, W Stroebe 171–202 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  35. Foster D. 1987. Detention & Torture in South Africa: Psychological, Legal & Historical Studies Cape Town: David Philip [Google Scholar]
  36. Gendreau P, Freedman N, Wilde G, Scott G. 1972. Changes in EEG alpha frequency and evoked response latency during solitary confinement. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 79:54–59 [Google Scholar]
  37. Gibbons J, Katzenbach N. 2006. Confronting Confinement: A Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons New York: Vera Inst. Justice
  38. Glaze L, Parks E. 2012. Correctional populations in the United States, 2011 Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 239972, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  39. Goetz J, Keltner D, Simon-Thomas E. 2010. Compassion: an evolutionary analysis and empirical review. Psychol. Bull. 136:351–74 [Google Scholar]
  40. Grassian S. 1983. Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement. Am. J. Psychiatry 140:1450–54 [Google Scholar]
  41. Grassian S. 2006. Psychiatric effects of solitary confinement. Wash. Univ. J. Law Policy 22:325–83 [Google Scholar]
  42. Grassian S, Kupers T. 2011. The Colorado Study versus the reality of supermax confinement. . Correct. Ment. Health Rep. 13:11–16 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hafner S, Emeny R, Lacruz M, Baumert J, Herder C. et al. 2011. Association between social isolation and inflammatory markers in depressed and non-depressed individuals: results from the MONICA/KORA study. Brain Behav. Immun. 25:1701–7 [Google Scholar]
  44. Haney C. 1993. “Infamous punishment”: the psychological consequences of isolation. Natl. Prison Proj. J. 8:33–7, 21 [Google Scholar]
  45. Haney C. 2003. Mental health issues in long-term solitary and “supermax” confinement. Crime Delinq 49:124–56 [Google Scholar]
  46. Haney C. 2006. Reforming Punishment: Psychological Limits to the Pains of Imprisonment Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc. Books
  47. Haney C. 2009. The social psychology of isolation: why solitary confinement is psychologically harmful. Prison Serv J 181:12–20 [Google Scholar]
  48. Haney C. 2017. The dimensions of “social death”: psychological reactions to extremely long-term solitary confinement. Unpublished manuscript
  49. Haney C, Bakhshay S. 2017. Contexts of ill-treatment: the relationship of captivity and prison confinement to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment and torture. In Torture and Its Definition in International Law M Basoğlu 139–78 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  50. Haney C, Lynch M. 1997. Regulating prisons of the future: the psychological consequences of solitary and supermax confinement. N. Y. Rev. Law Soc. Change 23:477–570 [Google Scholar]
  51. Haney C, Weill J, Bakhshay S, Lockett T. 2015. Examining jail isolation: what we don't know can be profoundly harmful. Prison J 96:121–52 [Google Scholar]
  52. Heiden Z. 2013. Change Is Possible: A Case Study of Solitary Confinement Reform in Maine Portland, ME: ACLU Maine https://www.aclu.org/report/change-possible-case-study-solitary-confinement-reform-maine
  53. Hertenstein M, Keltner D, App B, Bulleit B, Jaskolka AR. 2006. Touch communicates distinct emotions. Emotion 6:528–533 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hertenstein M, Weiss S. 2011. The Handbook of Touch: Neuroscience, Behavioral, and Health Perspectives New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  55. Hodgins S, Cote G. 1991. The mental health of penitentiary inmates in isolation. Can. J. Criminol. 33:177–82 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hunt G, Reigel S, Morales T, Waldorf D. 1993. Changes in prison culture: Prison gangs and the case of the Pepsi generation. Soc. Probl. 40:398–409 [Google Scholar]
  57. Ill. Dep. Correct. 2013. Efficiencies Fact Sheet – FY2013 Budget Springfield, IL: Ill. Dep. Correct https://www.illinois.gov/gov/budget/Documents/Budget%20Book/FY%202013/FINAL%20Efficiencies%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20FY2013%20Budget.pdf
  58. In re Medley, 134 U.S. 160 1890.
  59. Int. Psychol. Trauma Symp. 2007. Istanbul statement on the use and effects of solitary confinement. Int. Psychol. Trauma Symp., Istanbul Dec. 9. http://www.univie.ac.at/bimtor/dateien/topic8_istanbul_statement_effects_solconfinment.pdf [Google Scholar]
  60. Jones D. 1976. The Health Risks of Imprisonment Lexington, KY: Lexington Books
  61. Kaba F, Lewis A, Glowa-Kollisch S, Hadler J, Lee D. et al. 2014. Solitary confinement and risk of self-harm among jail inmates. Am. J. Public Health 104:442–47 [Google Scholar]
  62. Karremans J, Heslenfeld D, van Dillen L, Van Lange P. 2011. Secure attachment partners attenuate neural responses to social exclusion: an fMRI investigation. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 81:44–50 [Google Scholar]
  63. Kelman H. 1976. Violence without restraint: reflections on the dehumanization of victims and victimizers. Varieties of Psychohistory G Kren, L Rappaport 282–314 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  64. Koch I. 1986. Mental and social sequelae of isolation: the evidence of deprivation experiments and of pretrial detention in Denmark. The Expansion of European Prison Systems B Rolston, M Tomlinson 119–29 Florence, Italy: Eur. Group Study Deviance Soc. Control [Google Scholar]
  65. Kupers T. 2008. What to do with the survivors? Coping with long-term effects of isolated confinement. Crim. Justice Behav. 35:1005–16 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lanes E. 2009. The association of administrative segregation placement and other risk factors with the self-injury-free time of male prisoners. J. Offender Rehabil. 48:529–46 [Google Scholar]
  67. Lanes E. 2011. Are the “worst of the worst” self-injurious prisoners more likely to end up in long-term maximum-security segregation?. Int. J. Offender Rehabil. 55:1034–50 [Google Scholar]
  68. Lieberman M. 2013. Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect New York: Random House
  69. Lippman M. 1994. The development and drafting of the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Boston Coll. Int. Comp. Law Rev. 27:275–335 [Google Scholar]
  70. Lovell D, Cloyes K, Allen D, Rhodes L. 2000. Who lives in super-maximum custody? A Washington State study. Fed. Probat. 64:233–38 [Google Scholar]
  71. Lovell D, Johnson L, Cain K. 2007. Recidivism of supermax prisoners in Washington. Crime Delinq 53:633–56 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lovell D, Toch H. 2011. Some observations about the Colorado Segregation Study. Correct. Ment. Health Rep. 13:13–4, 14–15 [Google Scholar]
  73. Madrid v. Gomez, 889 F. Supp. 1146 1995.
  74. Mears D, Bales W. 2009. Supermax incarceration and recidivism. Criminology 47:1131–66 [Google Scholar]
  75. Ment. Health Am. 2011. Position Statement 24: Seclusion and Restraints Alexandria, VA: MHA http://www.nmha.org/positions/seclusion-restraints
  76. Metzner J, Fellner J. 2010. Solitary confinement and mental illness in U.S. prisons: a challenge for medical ethics. J. Acad. Psychiatry Law 38:104–8 [Google Scholar]
  77. Miller H, Young G. 1997. Prison segregation: administrative detention remedy or mental health problem?. Crim. Behav. Ment. Health 7:85–94 [Google Scholar]
  78. Mitchell K. 2012. Colorado prisons turn away from heavy use of solitary confinement. Denver Post June 3. http://www.denverpost.com/2012/06/03/colorado-prisons-turn-away-from-heavy-use-of-solitary-confinement/
  79. Morgan R, Gendreau P, Smith P, Gray A, Labrecque R. et al. 2016. Quantitative synthesis of the effects of administrative segregation on inmates’ well-being. Psychol. Public Policy Law 22:439–61 [Google Scholar]
  80. Morris R. 2016. Exploring the effect of exposure to short-term solitary confinement among violent prison inmates. J. Quant. Criminol. 32:1–22 [Google Scholar]
  81. Natl. Alliance Mental Illn. 2016. Public Policy Platform of the National Alliance on Mental Illness Arlington, VA: NAMI, 12th ed. https://www.nami.org/About-NAMI/Policy-Platform
  82. Natl. Comm. Correct. Health Care. 2016. Position statement: solitary confinement (isolation). J. Correct. Health Care 22:257–63 [Google Scholar]
  83. Natl. Res. Counc. 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  84. New York State Bar Assoc. 2013. Committee on Civil Rights Report to the House of Delegates: Solitary Confinement in New York State Albany, NY: NYSBA http://www.nysba.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=26699
  85. New York State Counc. Churches. 2012. Resolution Opposing the Use of Prolonged Solitary Confinement in the Correctional Facilities of New York State and New York City Albany, NY: New York State Counc. Churches https://sites.google.com/site/nyscouncilofchurches/priorities/on-solitary-confinement
  86. Obama B. 2016. Why we must rethink solitary confinement. Washington Post Jan. 25. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/barack-obama-why-we-must-rethink-solitary-confinement/2016/01/25/29a361f2-c384-11e5-8965-0607e0e265ce_story.html?utm_term=.2367a0d39f64
  87. O'Keefe M. 2017. March Reflections on Colorado's Administrative Segregation Study. NIJ J 287:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  88. O'Keefe M, Klebe K, Stucker A, Sturm K, Leggett W. 2010. One Year Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Administrative Segregation Colorado Spring, CO: Colo. Dep. Correct.
  89. O'Keefe M, Klebe K, Metzner J, Dvoskin J, Fellner J, Stucker A. 2013. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation. J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry Law 41:49–60 [Google Scholar]
  90. Patterson R, Hughes K. 2008. Review of completed suicides in the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, 1999–2004. Psychiatr. Serv. 59:676–82 [Google Scholar]
  91. Pawlaczyk G, Hundsdorfer B. 2010. Tamms supermax: expensive but is it necessary?. State Journal Register Jan. 2, http://www.sj-r.com/article/20100103/NEWS/301039984
  92. Penedo F, Dahn J. 2005. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry. 18:189–93 [Google Scholar]
  93. Presbyt. Church (USA). 2012. Commissioners’ Resolution 11-22. On Prolonged Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons Louisville, KY: Presbyt. Church (USA) https://pc-biz.org/MeetingPapers/(S(em2ohnl5h5sdehz2rjteqxtn))/Explorer.aspx?id=4389 [Google Scholar]
  94. Rabbin. Assembl. 2012. Resolution on Prison Conditions and Prisoner Isolation New York: Rabbin. Assembl http://www.rabbinicalassembly.org/story/resolution-prison-conditions-and-prisoner-isolation?tp=377
  95. Raemisch R. 2012. My night in solitary. New York Times Febr. 20, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/21/opinion/my-night-in-solitary.html?_r=0
  96. Raemisch R. 2017. Why we ended long-term solitary confinement in Colorado. New York Times Oct. 12 A25 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/12/opinion/solitary-confinement-colorado-prison.html
  97. Raemisch R, Wasko K. 2015. Open the Door: Segregation Reforms in Colorado Colorado Springs, CO: CDOC https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B30yLl0I1yBRY2h2UDBCZ0Q5WlE/view
  98. Reiter K. 2012. Parole, snitch, or die: California's supermax prisons and prisoners, 1997–2007. Punishm. Soc. 14:530–63 [Google Scholar]
  99. Reiter K. 2016. 23/7: Pelican Bay Prison and the Rise of Long-Term Solitary Confinement New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  100. Rhodes L, Lovell D. 2011. Is “adaptation” the right question? Addressing the larger context of administrative segregation: commentary on one year longitudinal study of the psychological effects of administrative segregation. Correct. Ment. Health 21:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  101. Riveland C. 1999. Supermax Prisons: Overview and General Considerations Washington, DC: US Dep. Justice. http://static.nicic.gov/Library/014937.pdf
  102. Ross J. 2013. The Globalization of Supermax Prisons New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  103. Rothman D. 1971. The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic Boston: Little Brown
  104. Russell D, Peplau L, Cutrona C. 1980. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 39:472–80 [Google Scholar]
  105. Saarni C. 1999. The Development of Emotional Competence New York: Guilford Press
  106. Sarnoff I, Zimbardo P. 1961. Anxiety, fear, and social affiliation. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 62:356–63 [Google Scholar]
  107. Schachter S. 1959. The Psychology of Affiliation: Experimental Studies of the Sources of Gregariousness Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  108. Schachter S, Singer J. 1962. Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychol. Rev. 69:379–99 [Google Scholar]
  109. Scott G, Gendreau P. 1969. Psychiatric implications of sensory deprivation in a maximum security prison. Can. Psychiatr. Assoc. J. 12:337–41 [Google Scholar]
  110. Shalev S. 2009. Supermax: Controlling Risk Through Solitary Confinement Cullompton, UK: Willan Publ.
  111. Shalev S, Lloyd M. 2011. If this be method, yet there is madness in it: commentary on one year longitudinal study of the psychological effects of administrative segregation. Correct. Ment. Health 21:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  112. Shallice T. 1974. Solitary confinement—a torture revived?. New Scientist Novemb. 28 666–67
  113. Smith P. 2006. The effects of solitary confinement on prison inmates: a brief history and review of the literature. Crime and Justice 34 M Tonry 441–528 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  114. Smith P. 2011. The effects of solitary confinement: commentary on one year longitudinal study of the psychological effects of administrative segregation. Correct. Ment. Health 21:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  115. Soc. Correct. Physicians. 2013. Position Statement, Restricted Housing of Mentally Ill Inmates Littleton, CO: ACCP http://accpmed.org/restricted_housing_of_mentally.php
  116. Somnier F, Genefke I. 1986. Psychotherapy for victims of torture. Br. J. Psychiatry 149:323–29 [Google Scholar]
  117. Spec. Rapp. Torture Other Cruel Inhuman Degrading Treat. Punishm. 2011. Interim Report of the Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment U.N. Doc A/66/268 76–78 August 5, http://solitaryconfinement.org/uploads/SpecRapTortureAug2011.pdf
  118. Stellar J, Keltner D. 2014. Compassion. Handbook of Positive Emotions M Tugade, M Shiota, L Kirby 329–41 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  119. Stern M. 2014. Society of Correctional Physicians calls for caution placing mentally ill in solitary: an important band-aid. J. Correct. Health Care 20:92–94 [Google Scholar]
  120. Sundt J, Castellano T, Briggs C. 2008. The sociopolitical context of prison violence and its effect in Illinois. Prison J 88:94–122 [Google Scholar]
  121. Tapley L. 2011. Reform comes to Maine supermax: new commissioner cuts population by more than half; prisoner rights advocates help in the reform. Portland Phoenix Sept. 15, https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2011/sep/15/reform-comes-to-maine-supermax-new-commissioner-cuts-population-by-more-than-half-prisoner-rights-advocates-help-in-the-reform/
  122. Thornicroft G. 1991. Social deprivation and rates of treated mental disorder: developing statistical models to predict psychiatric service utilization. Br. J. Psychiatry 158:475–84 [Google Scholar]
  123. Tiedens L, Leach C. 2004. The Social Life of Emotions New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  124. Toch H. 1975. Men in Crisis: Human Breakdowns in Prisons Chicago: Aldine Publ.
  125. Truax S. 1984. Determinants of emotion attributions: a unifying view. Motiv. Emot. 8:33–54 [Google Scholar]
  126. Twenge J, Catanese K, Baumeister R. 2003. Social exclusion and the deconstructed state: time perception, meaninglessness, lethargy, lack of emotion, and self awareness. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 85:409–23 [Google Scholar]
  127. US Dep. Justice. 2013. Letter to the Honorable Tom Corbett, Re: Investigation of the State Correctional Institution at Cresson and Notice of Expanded Investigation, May 31, 2013, at p 5 http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/spl/documents/cresson_findings_5-31-13.pdf
  128. US Dep. Justice. 2016. Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing. https://www.justice.gov/archives/dag/report-and-recommendations-concerning-use-restrictive-housing
  129. Volkart R. 1983. Einzelhaft: Eine Literaturubersicht (Solitary confinement: A literature survey). Psychol. -Schweiz. Z. Psychol. Und Ihre Anwend. 42:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  130. Volkart R, Dittrich A, Rothenfluh T, Werner P. 1983a. Eine Kontrollierte Untersuchung uber Psychopathologische Effekte der Einzelhaft (A controlled investigation on psychopathological effects of solitary confinement), Psychologie - Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen 4225–46
  131. Volkart R, Rothenfluh T, Kobelt W, Dittrich A, Ernst K. 1983b. Einzelhaft als Risikofaktor fur Psychiatrische Hospitalisierung. . Psychiatr. Clin. 16:365–77 [Google Scholar]
  132. Waligora B. 1974. Funkcjonowanie Czlowieka W Warunkach Izolacji Wieziennej (How men function in conditions of penitentiary isolation). Ser. Psychol. Pedagog. 34:1–123 [Google Scholar]
  133. Walters R, Callagan J, Newman A. 1963. Effect of solitary confinement on prisoners. Am. J. Psychiatry 119:771–73 [Google Scholar]
  134. Weiss R. 1995. The attachment bond in childhood and adulthood. Attachment Across the Life Cycle C Parkes, J Stevenson-Hinde, P Marris 66–76 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  135. Whittaker S. 1988. Counseling torture victims. Couns. Psychol. 16:272–78 [Google Scholar]
  136. Wooldredge J. 1999. Inmate experiences and psychological well-being. Crim. Justice Behav. 26:235–50 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error