Mass incarceration is an unprecedented development, one with myriad adverse consequences. Although the expansion of US penal institutions is largely a function of changes in practice and policy rather than rising crime rates, reversing this trend will nonetheless be challenging. The need for comprehensive sentencing reform is clear, but political limits on legislative remedies and the failure of the courts to notably reduce the scale, or improve conditions, of confinement render these approaches highly uncertain. In the short term, unconventional methods that do not require legislative authorization, such as electing, pressuring, and incentivizing prosecutors to reduce penal severity, may be a promising way of addressing mass incarceration. The return and revitalization of parole or other systems of post-sentence review are also crucial and may be legitimated in terms of the need to incentivize rehabilitation and prevent the unnecessary and costly incarceration of the elderly. The recent mobilization of grass-roots movements for penal change that include those directly affected by both violence and mass incarceration is also auspicious, as their work may help to humanize the justice-involved and undermine the erroneous assumption that crime survivors are well-served by mass incarceration.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Alexander M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness New York: New Press, 1st ed..
  2. Alexander M. 2014. How to dismantle the “New Jim Crow.” Sojourners, July. https://sojo.net/magazine/july-2014/how-dismantle-new-jim-crow
  3. Am. Civ. Lib. Union. 2012. At America's Expense: The Mass Incarceration of the Elderly. New York: Am. Civ. Lib. Union. https://www.aclu.org/files/assets/elderlyprisonreport_20120613_1.pdf [Google Scholar]
  4. Austin J, Cadora E, Clear TR, Dansky K, Greene J. et al. 2013. Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a New Justice Reinvestment Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj.
  5. Aviram H. 2015. Cheap on Crime: Recession-Era Politics and the Transformation of American Punishment Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
  6. Ball WD. 2014. Why state prisons?. Yale Law Policy Rev 33:175–117 [Google Scholar]
  7. Beckett K. 1997. Making Crime Pay Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press
  8. Beckett K, Harris A. 2011. On cash and conviction: monetary sanctions as misguided policy. Criminol. Public Policy 10:3509–37 [Google Scholar]
  9. Beckett K, Herbert S. 2010. Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  10. Beckett K, Murakawa N. 2012. Mapping the shadow carceral state: toward an institutionally capacious approach to punishment. Theor. Criminol. 16:2221–44 [Google Scholar]
  11. Beckett K, Reosti A, Knaphus K. 2016. The end of an era: understanding the contradictions of criminal justice reform. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 664:1238–59 [Google Scholar]
  12. Beckett K, Western B. 1999. How unregulated is the U.S. labor market? The penal system as labor market institution. Am. J. Sociol. 104:41030–60 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bennett WJ, Walters JP. 2016. Drug dealing is a violent crime. Washington ExaminerMay 9 http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/drug-dealing-is-a-violent-crime/article/2590660
  14. Bland S. 2016. George Soros’ quiet overhaul of the U.S. justice system. PoliticoAugust 30 http://www.politico.com/story/2016/08/george-soros-criminal-justice-reform-227519
  15. Blumstein A, Beck AJ. 1999. Population growth in U.S. prisons, 1980–1996. Crime Justice 26:17–61 [Google Scholar]
  16. Blumstein A, Beck AJ. 2005. Reentry as a transient state between liberty and recommitment. Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America J Travis, C Viser 50–79 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Brayne S. 2014. Surveillance and system avoidance: criminal justice contact and institutional attachment. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:3367–91 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brown B, Jolivette G. 2005. A Primer: Three Strikes—The Impact After More than a Decade Sacramento: Calif. Legis. Anal. Office http://www.lao.ca.gov/2005/3_strikes/3_strikes_102005.htm
  19. Brown EK. 2013. Foreclosing on mass incarceration? State and correctional policy enactments and the Great Recession. Crim. Justice Political Rev. 24:3317–37 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cadora E. 2014. Civics lessons: how certain schemes to end mass incarceration can fail. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:1277–85 [Google Scholar]
  21. Campbell MC. 2012. Ornery alligators and soap on a rope: Texas prosecutors and punishment reform in the lone star state. Theor. Criminol. 16:3289–311 [Google Scholar]
  22. Campbell MC, Schoenfeld H. 2013. The transformation of America's penal order: a historicized political sociology of punishment. Am. J. Sociol. 118:51375–423 [Google Scholar]
  23. Campbell MC, Vogel M, Williams J. 2015. Historical contingencies and the evolving importance of race, violent crime, and region in explaining mass incarceration in the United States. Criminology 53:20180–203 [Google Scholar]
  24. Carson A, Anderson E. 2016. Prisoners in 2015 Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15.pdf
  25. Carson A, Sabol W. 2012. Prisoners in 2011 Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf
  26. Chen EY. 2014. In the furtherance of justice, injustice, or both? A multilevel analysis of courtroom context and the implementation of three strikes. Justice Q 31:257–86 [Google Scholar]
  27. Clear TR. 2007. Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Communities Worse Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press
  28. Clear TR, Frost NA. 2013. The Punishment Imperative: The Rise and Failure of Mass Incarceration in America New York: N.Y. Univ. Press
  29. Comfort M. 2007. Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  30. Cullen F, Pratt TC, Turanovic JJ. 2016. It's hopeless: beyond zero-tolerance supervision. Criminol. Public Policy 15:41215–27 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dagan D, Teles SM. 2014. Locked in? Conservative reform and the future of mass incarceration. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:1266–76 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dagan D, Teles SM. 2015. The social construction of policy feedback: incarceration, conservatism, and ideological change. Stud. Am. Political Dev. 29:2127–53 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dagan D, Teles SM. 2016. Prison Break: Why Conservatives Turned Against Mass Incarceration Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press
  34. Davis A. 2008. The American prosecutor: power, discretion and misconduct. Crim. Justice 1:24–37 [Google Scholar]
  35. DeFina R, Hannon L. 2013. The impact of mass incarceration on poverty. Crime Delinq 59:4562–86 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ditton PM, Wilson DJ. 1999. Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat https://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/tssp.pdf
  37. Edsall TB. 2017. Reaching out to the voters left behind. New York Times April 13. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/13/opinion/reaching-out-to-the-voters-the-left-left-behind.html [Google Scholar]
  38. Eisen LB. 2015. Charging Inmates Perpetuates Mass Incarceration New York: Brennan Cent. Justice https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/charging-inmates-perpetuates-mass-incarceration
  39. Eisen LB, Chettiar IM. 2015. The Reverse Mass Incarceration Act. New York: Brennan Cent. Justice https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/reverse-mass-incarceration-act
  40. Feeley M. 1979. The Process is the Punishment: Handling Cases in a Lower Criminal Court New York: Russell Sage
  41. Flores J. 2016. Caught Up: Girls, Surveillance, and Wraparound Incarceration Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  42. Forman J Jr. 2012. Racial critiques of mass incarceration: beyond the new Jim Crow. N.Y. Law Rev. 87:1101–46 [Google Scholar]
  43. Forman J Jr. 2017. Justice springs eternal. New York Times, March 25, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/25/opinion/sunday/justice-springs-eternal.html?emc=eta1&_r=0
  44. Garland D. 1990. Punishment and Modern Society Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  45. Garland D. 2001. Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences Beverley Hills, CA: Sage Publ.
  46. Geller A, Fagan J, Tyler T, Link BG. 2014. Aggressive policing and the mental health of young urban men. Am. J. Public Health 104:122321–27 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ghandnoosh N. 2017. Delaying a Second Change: The Declining Prospects for Parole on Life Sentences Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj.
  48. Goffman A. 2014. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  49. Goodman P, Page J, Phelps M. 2014. The long struggle: an agonistic perspective on penal development. Theor. Criminol. 19:3315–35 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gottschalk M. 2012. No way out? Life sentences and the politics of penal reform. Life Without Parole: America's New Death Penalty? C Ogltree, A Sarat 227–81 New York: New York Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Gottschalk M. 2015. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  52. Grawart AC. 2017. Analysis: Jeff Sessions’ Record on Criminal Justice New York: Brennan Cent. Justice https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/SenatorJeffSessionsRecordonCriminalJustice.pdf
  53. Green DA. 2015. U.S. penal-reform catalysts, drivers, and prospects. Punishm. Soc. 17:3271–98 [Google Scholar]
  54. Greenberg C, Meredith M, Morse M. 2016. The growing and broad nature of legal financial obligations: evidence from court records in Alabama. Conn. Law Rev. 48:41079–120 [Google Scholar]
  55. Greenberg DF, West V. 2001. State prison populations and their growth, 1971–1991. Criminol 39:615–53 [Google Scholar]
  56. Guetzkow J, Schoon E. 2015. If you build it they will fill it: the consequences of prison overcrowding litigation. Law Soc. Rev. 49:2401–32 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hager E. 2017. Your kid goes to jail, you get the bill. The Marshall Project March 2. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2017/03/02/your-kid-goes-to-jail-you-get-the-bill#.nHL3fCuEe
  58. Hager E, Keller B. 2017. Everything you think you know about mass incarceration is wrong. The Marshall Project Febr. 9, https://www.themarshallproject.org/2017/02/09/everything-you-think-you-know-about-mass-incarceration-is-wrong#.KJEBpxqkL
  59. Harris A. 2016. A Pound of Flesh: Monetary Sanctions as a Punishment for the Poor New York: Russell: Sage
  60. Harris A, Evans H, Beckett K. 2010. Drawing blood from stones: monetary sanctions, punishment, and inequality in the contemporary United States. Am. J. Sociol. 115:1753–99 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hernandez J. 2017. New Jersey eliminates cash bail for people accused of some crimes. Marketplace Jan. 9. http://www.marketplace.org/2017/01/03/wealth-poverty/new-jersey-eliminates-cash-bail-people-accused-some-crimes
  62. Hernandez KL, Muhammad KG, Thompson HA. 2015. Introduction: constructing the carceral state. J. Am. Hist. 102:1018–24 [Google Scholar]
  63. Horwitz S. 2015. Justice Department set to free 6,000 prisoners, largest one-time release. Washington Post Oct. 6, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/justice-department-about-to-free-6000-prisoners-largest-one-time-release/2015/10/06/961f4c9a-6ba2-11e5-aa5b-f78a98956699_story.html?utm_term=.534e531572df
  64. Hulse C. 2016. Why the Senate couldn't pass a crime bill both parties backed. New York Times Sept. 16, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/17/us/politics/senate-dysfunction-blocks-bipartisan-criminal-justice-overhaul.html?_r=0
  65. Jackman T. 2017. How to curb violence, and mass incarceration, by focusing on crime victims. Washington Post Febr. 16, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/true-crime/wp/2017/02/16/how-to-curb-violence-and-mass-incarceration-by-focusing-on-crime-victims/?utm_term=.73321ebb8539
  66. Jacobs D, Carmichael JT. 2001. The politics of punishment across time and space: a pooled time-series analysis of imprisonment rates. Soc. Forces 80:61–91 [Google Scholar]
  67. Jaggi LJ, Mezuk B, Watkins DC, Jackson JS. 2016. The relationship between trauma, arrest, and incarceration history among black Americans: findings from the national survey of American life. Soc. Mental Health 2016:1–20 [Google Scholar]
  68. Justice Policy Inst. 2012. For Better or for Profit: How the Bail Bonding Industry Stands in the Way of Fair and Effective Pretrial Justice Washington, DC: Justice Policy Inst.
  69. Kaeble D, Glaze L. 2016. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015 Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus15.pdf [Google Scholar]
  70. King RD. 2016. Cumulative impact: why incarceration goes up even when crime declines Presented at Annu. Meet. Am. Sociol. Assoc., 111th Seattle:
  71. Kleiman M. 2013. New role for parole. Washington Monthly Jan./Febr., http://washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/janfeb-2013/a-new-role-for-parole/ [Google Scholar]
  72. Kohler-Hausmann I. 2013. Misdemeanor justice: control without conviction. Am. J. Sociol. 199:2351–93 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kohler-Hausmann I. 2014. Managerial justice and mass misdemeanors. Stanford Law Rev 66:3611–93 [Google Scholar]
  74. Krisberg B. 2016. How do you eat an elephant? Reducing incarceration in California one small bite at a time. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 664:136–154 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lappi-Seppälä T. 2012. Criminology, crime, and criminal justice in Finland. Eur. J. Criminol. 9:2206–22 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lara-Millan A. 2014. Public emergency over-crowding in the era of mass imprisonment. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:5866–87 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lee H, McCormick T, Hicken MT, Wildeman C. 2015. Racial inequalities in connectedness to imprisoned individuals in the United States. Du Bois Rev 12:2269–82 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lee H, Wildeman C, Wang E, Matusko N, Jackson J. 2014. A heavy burden? The health consequences of having a family member incarcerated. Am. J. Public Health 104:3421–27 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lerman AE, Weaver VM. 2014. Arresting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of American Crime Control Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  80. Lofstrom M, Raphael S. 2016. Incarceration and crime: evidence from California's Public Safety Realignment reform. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 664:1196–220 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lynch JP, Pridemore WA. 2011. Crime in international perspective. Crime and Public Policy JQ Wilson, WA Pridemore 5–52 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  82. Lynch M. 2016. Hard Bargains: The Coercive Power of Drug Laws in Federal Court New York: Russell Sage
  83. Martin KD, Smith SS, Still W. 2017. Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-Entry They Create New Think. Community Correct. Bull. NCJ 249976, US Dep Justice Natl. Inst. Justice Washington, DC:
  84. Massoglia M, Pridemore W. 2015. Incarceration and health. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 41:291–328 [Google Scholar]
  85. Mauer M, Ghandnoosh N. 2014. Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj http://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/fewer-prisoners-less-crime-a-tale-of-three-states/ [Google Scholar]
  86. Murakawa N. 2014. The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press
  87. Napatoff A. 2015. Misdemeanors. Ann. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 11:255–67 [Google Scholar]
  88. Natl. Counc. State Legis. 2016. Drug Sentencing Trends Washington, DC: Natl. Counc. State Legis http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/drug-sentencing-trends.aspx
  89. Neller DJ, Denney RL, Pietz CA, Thomlinson RP. 2006. The relationship between trauma and violence in a jail inmate sample. J. Interpers. Violence 21:91234–41 [Google Scholar]
  90. Nellis A. 2017. Still Life: America's Increasing Use of Life and Long Term Sentences Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj http://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/still-life-americas-increasing-use-life-long-term-sentences/
  91. Owens E. 2011. Truthiness in punishment: the far reach of truth-in-sentencing laws in state courts. J. Empir. Leg. Stud. 8:S1239–61 [Google Scholar]
  92. Page J. 2011a. The Toughest Beat: Politics, Punishment and the Prison Officers Union in California Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  93. Page J. 2011b. Prison officer unions and the perpetuation of the penal status quo. Criminol. Public Policy 10:3735–70 [Google Scholar]
  94. Pager D. 2007. Marked: Race, Crime and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  95. Pager D, Western B, Bonikowski B. 2009. Discrimination in low wage labor markets. Am. Sociol. Rev. 74:777–79 [Google Scholar]
  96. Patterson EJ, Preston SH. 2008. Estimating mean length of stay in prison: method and applications. J. Quant. Criminol. 24:33–49 [Google Scholar]
  97. Petersilia J, Cullen FT. 2015. Liberal but not stupid: meeting the promise of downsizing prisons. Stanford J. Crim. Law Policy 2:11–45 [Google Scholar]
  98. Pettit B. 2012. Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress New York: Russell Sage
  99. Pettit B, Western B. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. Am. Sociol. Rev. 69:2151–69 [Google Scholar]
  100. PEW Cent. States. 2008. One in 100: Behind Bars in America Philadelphia: PEW Charit. Trusts http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2008/02/28/one-in-100-behind-bars-in-america-2008
  101. PEW Cent. States. 2012. Time Served: The High Cost, Low Return of Longer Prison Terms. Philadelphia: PEW Charit. Trusts http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2012/06/06/time-served-the-high-cost-low-return-of-longer-prison-terms
  102. Pfaff JF. 2011a. The myths and realities of correctional severity: evidence from the national corrections reporting program on sentencing practices. Am. Law Econ. Rev. 13:20491–531 [Google Scholar]
  103. Pfaff JF. 2011b. Micro and macro causes of prison growth. Ga. State Univ. Law Rev. 28:41237–72 [Google Scholar]
  104. Pfaff JF. 2017. Locked In: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration—and How to Achieve Real Reform New York: Basic Books
  105. Phelps MS. 2013. The paradox of probation: community supervision in the age of mass incarceration. Law Policy 35:1–251–80 [Google Scholar]
  106. Phelps MS. 2016. Possibilities and contestation in twenty-first-century U.S. criminal justice downsizing. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 12:153–70 [Google Scholar]
  107. Phelps MS, Pager D. 2016. Inequality and punishment: a turning point for mass incarceration?. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 663:185–203 [Google Scholar]
  108. Pierson P. 2000. Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 94:2251–67 [Google Scholar]
  109. Porter ND. 2016. Repurposing: New Beginnings for Closed Prisons Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj http://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/repurposing-new-beginnings-closed-prisons/
  110. Provine DM. 2007. Unequal Under Law: Race in the War on Drugs Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  111. Public Policy Inst. Calif. 2017. Just the Facts: California's County Jails San Francisco: PPIC http://www.ppic.org/main/publication_show.asp?i=1061
  112. Rabuy B, Kopf D. 2016. Detaining the Poor: How Money Bail Perpetuates an Endless Cycle of Poverty and Jail Time Northampton, MA: Prison Policy Initiat https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/incomejails.html
  113. Raphael S, Stoll MA. 2009. Why are so many Americans in prison?. Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom S Raphael, MA Stoll 27–72 New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  114. Raphael S, Stoll MA. 2013. Why Are So Many Americans in Prison? New York: Russell Sage [Google Scholar]
  115. Reaves BA. 2013. Felony defendants in large urban counties, 2009 - statistical tables Bur. Justice Stat. Rep. NCJ 243777, US Dep. Justice Washington, DC: [Google Scholar]
  116. Reiter K. 2015. Supermax administration and the Eighth Amendment: deference, discretion and double-bunking, 1986–2010. UC Irvine Law Rev 5:89–151 [Google Scholar]
  117. Rios VM. 2011. Punished: Police in the Lives of Black and Latino Boys New York: N.Y. Univ. Press
  118. Roeder O. 2014. Just Facts: Quantifying the Incarceration Conversation New York: Brennan Cent. Justice http://www.brennancenter.org/blog/just-facts-quantifying-incarceration-conversation
  119. Rubin A. 2015. California's jail building boom. The Marshall Project July 2. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/07/02/california-s-jail-building-boom#.mdrBvgrXo
  120. Sabol WJ. 2014. Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2012 Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bjs/grants/249799.pdf [Google Scholar]
  121. Schlanger M. 2016. Anti-incarcerative remedies for illegal conditions of confinement. Univ. Miami Race Soc. Justice Law Rev. 1:1–31 [Google Scholar]
  122. Schoenfeld H. 2010. Mass incarceration and the paradox of prison conditions litigation. Law Soc. Rev. 44:3–4731–97 [Google Scholar]
  123. Seeds C. 2016. Bifurcation nation: American penal policy in late mass incarceration. Punish. Soc. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474516673822 [Crossref]
  124. Sewell A, Jefferson K. 2016. Collateral damage: the health effects of invasive police encounters in New York City. J. Urban Health 93:Suppl. 142–67 [Google Scholar]
  125. Sewell A, Jefferson K, Lee H. 2016. Living under surveillance: gender, psychological distress, and stop-question-and-frisk policing in New York City. Soc. Sci. Med. 159:C1–13 [Google Scholar]
  126. Simon J. 2013. Courts and the penal state: lessons from California's decades of prison litigation and expansion. Calif. J. Political Policy 5:2252–65 [Google Scholar]
  127. Simon J. 2014. Mass Incarceration on Trial: A Remarkable Court Decision and the Future of Prisons in America New York: New Press
  128. Spellman W. 2009. Crime, cash and limited options: explaining the prison boom. Criminol. Public Policy 8:129–77 [Google Scholar]
  129. Stillman S. 2015. Black wounds matter. New YorkerOct. 15 http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/black-wounds-matter [Google Scholar]
  130. Stuart F. 2016. Down, Out and Under Arrest: Policing and Everyday Life in Skid Row Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  131. Stuart F, Armenta A, Osborne M. 2015. Legal control of marginal groups. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 11:235–54 [Google Scholar]
  132. Stuntz WJ. 2011. The Collapse of American Criminal Justice Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press
  133. Subramanian R, Henrichson C, Kang-Brown J. 2016. In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails New York: Vera Instit. Justice Cent. Sentencing Correct http://www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/incarceration-trends-in-our-own-backyard-report.pdf
  134. Subramanian R, Moreno R. 2014. Drug War Détente? A Review of State-level Drug Law Reform, 2009–2013 New York: Vera Instit. Justice Cent. Sentencing Correct http://archive.vera.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/state-drug-law-reform-review-2009-2013.pdf [Google Scholar]
  135. Sykes B, Pettit B. 2014. Mass incarceration, family complexity, and the reproduction of childhood disadvantage. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 654:1127–49 [Google Scholar]
  136. Thompson MF. 2013. State revenue collection through the Great Recession. Indiana Bus. Rev. 88:38–12 [Google Scholar]
  137. Thorpe RU. 2015. Perverse politics: the persistence of mass imprisonment in the twenty-first century. Perspect. Political 13:3618–37 [Google Scholar]
  138. Tonry M. 2011. Punishing Race: A Continuing American Dilemma New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  139. Tonry M. 2014. Remodeling American sentencing: a ten-step blueprint for moving past mass incarceration. Criminol. Public Policy 13:4503–33 [Google Scholar]
  140. Tonry M. 2016. Sentencing Fragments: Penal Reform in America, 1975–2025 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  141. Travis J. 2014. Assessing the state of mass incarceration: tipping point or the new normal?. Crim. Pub. Policy 13:4567–77 [Google Scholar]
  142. Travis J, Western B, Redburn S. 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  143. Uggen C, Larson R, Shannon S. 2016. Six Million Lost Voters: State-Level Estimates of Felony Disenfranchisement, 2016 Washington, DC: Sentencing Proj. [Google Scholar]
  144. Vallas R, Dietrich S. 2014. One Strike and You're Out: How We Can Eliminate Barriers to Economic Security and Mobility for People with Criminal Records Washington, DC: Cent. Am. Prog.
  145. Verma A. 2015. The law-before: legacies and gaps in penal reform. Law Soc. Rev. 49:4847–82 [Google Scholar]
  146. Wagner P, Rabuy B. 2017. Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2016 Northampton, MA: Prison Policy Initiat https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2016.html
  147. Wagner P, Walsh A. 2016. States of Incarceration: The Global Context 2016 Northampton, MA: Prison Policy Initiat https://www.prisonpolicy.org/global/2016.html
  148. Wakefield S, Lee H, Wildeman C. 2016. Tough on crime, tough on families? Criminal justice and family life in America. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:8–21 [Google Scholar]
  149. Wakefield S, Wildeman C. 2013. Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press
  150. Walmsley R. 2015. World Prison Population List London: Institute Crim. Policy Res, 11th ed..
  151. Weaver VM. 2007. Frontlash: race and the development of punitive crime policy. Stud. Am. Political Dev. 21:230–65 [Google Scholar]
  152. Weller C. 2017. Trump says the economy is a ‘mess’—here is the truth about Obama's economic legacy. Business Insider March 5, http://www.businessinsider.com/trump-economy-mess-obama-legacy-2017-3
  153. Western B. 2006. Punishment and Inequality New York: Russell Sage
  154. Western B. 2012. The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. Am. Sociol. Rev. 67:526–46 [Google Scholar]
  155. Western B. 2015. Lifetimes of violence in a sample of released prisoners. Russell Sage J. Soc. Sci. 1:214–30 [Google Scholar]
  156. Wiggins O. 2016. Bail reform in Maryland clears major hurdle. Washington PostNovemb. 18 https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/md-politics/bail-reform-in-maryland-clears-major-hurdle/2016/11/18/374c5340-ac22-11e6-8b45-f8e493f06fcd_story.html?utm_term=.ebbe63e13320
  157. Wildeman C, Western B. 2010. Incarceration in fragile families. Future Child 20:2157–77 [Google Scholar]
  158. Wolff N, Jing S, Siegel JA. 2009. Patterns of victimization among male and female inmates: evidence of an enduring legacy. Violence Vict 24:4469–84 [Google Scholar]
  159. Zimring FE, Hawkins G. 1991. The Scale of Imprisonment Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error