In this review, we examine the links between economic development and social conflict. By , we refer broadly to aggregate changes in per capita income and wealth or in the distribution of that wealth. By , we refer to within-country unrest, ranging from peaceful demonstrations, processions, and strikes to violent riots and civil war. We organize our review by critically examining three common perceptions: that conflict declines with ongoing economic growth; that conflict is principally organized along economic differences rather than similarities; and that conflict, most especially in developing countries, is driven by ethnic motives.


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