1932

Abstract

Violence within families and child neglect are strikingly common: 700,000 children are found to be victims of abuse or neglect in the United States each year; over the course of childhood, 6% of children are placed in foster care, and 18% witness intimate partner violence. These children are at much higher risks of homelessness, criminal justice involvement, unemployment, and chronic health conditions compared to their neighbors. This article reviews the state of the economics literature on the causes and consequences of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence and calls for greater research into interventions aimed at improving child well-being.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053237
2018-08-02
2024-04-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/economics/10/1/annurev-economics-080217-053237.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053237&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aizer A 2010. The gender wage gap and domestic violence. Am. Econ. Rev. 100:1847–59
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aizer A, Dal Bó P 2009. Love, hate and murder: commitment devices in violent relationships. J. Public Econ. 93:412–28
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Almond D, Currie J 2011. Killing me softly: the fetal origins hypothesis. J. Econ. Perspect. 25:3153–72
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderberg D, Rainer H, Wadsworth J, Wilson T 2016. Unemployment and domestic violence: theory and evidence. Econ. J. 126:1947–79
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Angrist JD 2006. Instrumental variables methods in experimental criminological research: what, why and how. J. Exp. Criminol. 2:23–44
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Aos S, Lieb R, Mayfield J, Miller M, Pennucci A 2004. Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth Rep Wash. State Inst. Public Policy Olympia, WA:
  7. Appel AE, Holden GW 1998. The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: a review and appraisal. J. Fam. Psychol. 12:578–99
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker A, Hoekstra ML 2010. Externalities in the classroom: how children exposed to domestic violence affect everyone's kids. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 2:211–28
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Becker GS 1991. A Treatise on the Family Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  10. Berger LM, Bruch SK, Johnson EI, James S, Rubin D 2009. Estimating the impact of out-of-home placement on child well-being: approaching the problem of selection bias. Child Dev 80:1856–76
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Berger LM, Cancian M, Cuesta L, Noyes JL 2016. Families at the intersection of the criminal justice and child protective services systems. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 665:171–94
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Berk RA, Sherman LW 1988. Police responses to family violence incidents: an analysis of an experimental design with incomplete randomization. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 83:70–76
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Berrick JD, Hernandez J 2016. Developing consistent and transparent kinship care policy and practice: state mandated, mediated, and independent care. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 68:24–33
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Berzin SC 2008. Difficulties in the transition to adulthood: using propensity scoring to understand what makes foster youth vulnerable. Soc. Serv. Rev. 82:171–96
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bitler M, Zavodny M 2002. Child abuse and abortion availability. Am. Econ. Rev. 92:363–67
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Black MC, Basile KC, Breiding MJ, Smith SG, Walters ML et al. 2011. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 summary report Rep Cent. Dis. Control Prev Atlanta, GA:
  17. Bobonis GJ, González-Brenes M, Castro R 2013. Public transfers and domestic violence: the roles of private information and spousal control. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy 5:1179–205
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Boden JM, Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM 2007. Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and subsequent educational achievement outcomes. Child Abuse Neglect 31:1101–14
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bowlus AJ, Seitz S 2006. Domestic violence, employment, and divorce. Int. Econ. Rev. 47:1113–49
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Browning M, Chiappori PA 1998. Efficient intra-household allocations: a general characterization and empirical tests. Econometrica 66:1241–78
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Caetano R, Cunradi CB, Schafer J, Clark CL 2000. Intimate partner violence and drinking patterns among white, black, and Hispanic couples in the U.S. J. Subst. Abuse 11:123–38
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Carlson BE 2000. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: research findings and implications for intervention. Trauma Violence Abuse 1:321–42
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Caspi A, Houts RM, Belsky DW, Harrington H, Hogan S et al. 2016. Childhood forecasting of a small segment of the population with large economic burden. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1:0005
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Catalano S, Smith E, Snyder H, Rand M 2009. Female victims of violence Rep., Bur. Justice Stat., Off. Justice Progr., U.S. Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  25. Cleaver H, Unell I, Aldgate J 1999. Children's Needs—Parenting Capacity: The Impact of Parental Mental Illness, Problem Alcohol and Drug Use, and Domestic Violence on Children's Development London: Station. Off.
  26. Congdon WJ, Kling JR, Mullainathan S 2011. Policy and Choice: Public Finance Through the Lens of Behavioral Economics Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. Press
  27. Coulton C, Crampton D, Cho Y, Kim SJ 2016. Effects of foster care and juvenile justice involvement on early adult outcomes: a study of Cleveland's youth Policy Res. Brief, Cent. Urban Poverty Community Dev., Case Western Reserve Univ Cleveland, OH:
  28. Cuccaro-Alamin S, Foust R, Vaithianathan R, Putnam-Hornstein E 2017. Risk assessment and decision making in child protective services: predictive risk modeling in context. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 79:291–98
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Cunha F, Heckman J 2007. The technology of skill formation. Am. Econ. Rev. Pap. Proc. 97:31–47
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cunningham S, Finlay K 2013. Parental substance use and foster care: evidence from two methamphetamine supply shocks. Econ. Inq. 51:764–82
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Currie J, Spatz Widom C 2010. Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being. Child Maltreat 15:111–20
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Currie J, Tekin E 2012. Understanding the cycle: childhood maltreatment and future crime. J. Hum. Resourc. 47:509–49
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Cutuli J, Goerge RM, Coulton C, Schretzman M, Crampton D et al. 2016. From foster care to juvenile justice: exploring characteristics of youth in three cities. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 67:84–94
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Danese A, Moffitt TE, Harrington H, Milne BJ, Polanczyk G et al. 2009. Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 163:1135–43
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Davidson-Arad B, Englechin-Segal D, Wozner Y 2003. Short-term follow-up of children at risk: comparison of the quality of life of children removed from home and children remaining at home. Child Abuse Neglect 27:733–50
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF et al. 2004. The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse Neglect 28:771–84
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Doyle JJ Jr 2007.a Can't buy me love? Subsidizing the care of related children. J. Public Econ. 91:281–304
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Doyle JJ Jr 2007.b Child protection and child outcomes: measuring the effects of foster care. Am. Econ. Rev. 97:1583–610
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Doyle JJ Jr 2008. Child protection and adult crime: using investigator assignment to estimate causal effects of foster care. J. Political Econ. 116:746–70
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Doyle JJ Jr 2013. Causal effects of foster care: an instrumental-variables approach. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 35:1143–51
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Doyle JJ Jr., Peters HE 2007. The market for foster care: an empirical study of the impact of foster care subsidies. Rev. Econ. Househ. 5:329–51
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Dworsky A, Napolitano L, Courtney M 2013. Homelessness during the transition from foster care to adulthood. Am. J. Public Health 103:S318–23
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Erten B, Keskin P 2018. For better or for worse? Education and the prevalence of domestic violence in Turkey. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 10:164–105
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Fallesen P, Emanuel N, Wildeman C 2014. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children. PLOS ONE 9:e109207
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Fang X, Brown DS, Florence CS, Mercy JA 2012. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse Neglect 36:156–65
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Farmer A, Tiefenthaler J 1997. An economic analysis of domestic violence. Rev. Soc. Econ. 55:337–58
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM et al. 1998. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study. Am. J. Prev. Med. 14:245–58
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Finkelhor D, Turner HA, Shattuck A, Hamby SL 2015. Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse: results from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. JAMA Pediatr 169:746–54
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Font SA 2014. Kinship and nonrelative foster care: the effect of placement type on child well-being. Child Dev 85:2074–90
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Fry D, Fang X, Elliott S, Casey T, Zheng X et al. 2017. The relationships between violence in childhood and educational outcomes: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse Neglect 75:6–28
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Goerge R, Van Voorhis J, Lee BJ 1994. Illinois's longitudinal and relational child and family research database. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 12:351–65
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Golding JM 1999. Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for mental disorders: a meta-analysis. J. Fam. Violence 14:99–132
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Graham-Bermann SA, Hughes HM 2003. Intervention for children exposed to interparental violence (IPV): assessment of needs and research priorities. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 6:189–204
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Greeson JK, Garcia AR, Kim M, Courtney ME 2015.a Foster youth and social support: the first RCT of independent living services. Res. Soc. Work Pract. 25:349–57
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Greeson JK, Garcia AR, Kim M, Thompson AE, Courtney ME 2015.b Development & maintenance of social support among aged out foster youth who received independent living services: results from the multi-site evaluation of foster youth programs. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 53:1–9
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gruber J, Levine P, Staiger D 1999. Abortion legalization and child living circumstances: Who is the marginal child. Q. J. Econ. 114:263–91
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Guille L 2004. Men who batter and their children: an integrated review. Aggress. Violent Behav. 9:129–63
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hamby SL, Finkelhor D, Turner H, Ormrod R 2011. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence and other family violence. Juv. Justice Bull. Oct. 2011, Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev., Off. Justice Progr., U.S. Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Hayduk I 2017. The effect of kinship placement laws on foster children's well-being. BE J. Econ. Anal. Policy 17:11–23
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Heckman JJ 2006. Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Science 312:57821900–2
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Heller SB, Shah AK, Guryan J, Ludwig J, Mullainathan S, Pollack HA 2017. Thinking, fast and slow? Some field experiments to reduce crime and dropout in Chicago. Q. J. Econ. 132:1–54
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Herrenkohl TI, Sousa C, Tajima EA, Herrenkohl RC, Moylan CA 2008. Intersection of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence. Trauma Violence Abuse 9:84–99
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hjern A, Vinnerljung B, Lindblad F 2004. Avoidable mortality among child welfare recipients and intercountry adoptees: a national cohort study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 58:412–17
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Holden GW 2003. Children exposed to domestic violence and child abuse: terminology and taxonomy. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 6:151–60
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Holt S, Buckley H, Whelan S 2008. The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature. Child Abuse Neglect 32:797–810
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Iyengar R 2009. Does the certainty of arrest reduce domestic violence? Evidence from mandatory and recommended arrest laws. J. Public Econ. 93:85–98
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Jacobs E, Skemer M, Courtney M 2015. Becoming adults: one-year impact findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation Rep MDRC Oakland, CA:
  68. Jonson-Reid M, Barth RP 2000. From maltreatment report to juvenile incarceration: the role of child welfare services. Child Abuse Neglect 24:505–20
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kahneman D 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan
  70. Kloppen K, Mæhle M, Kvello Ø, Haugland S, Breivik K 2015. Prevalence of intrafamilial child maltreatment in the Nordic countries: a review. Child Abuse Rev 24:51–66
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Lantz PM, Rosenbaum S, Ku L, Iovan S 2016. Pay for success and population health: Early results from eleven projects reveal challenges and promise. Health Aff 35:2053–61
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lawrence CR, Carlson EA, Egeland B 2006. The impact of foster care on development. Dev. Psychopathol. 18:57–76
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Levendosky AA, Huth-Bocks AC, Shapiro DL, Semel MA 2003. The impact of domestic violence on the maternal–child relationship and preschool-age children's functioning. J. Fam. Psychol. 17:275–87
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Levey EJ, Gelaye B, Bain P, Rondon MB, Borba CP et al. 2017. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of interventions designed to decrease child abuse in high-risk families. Child Abuse Neglect 65:48–57
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Levitt SD 2004. Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: four factors that explain the decline and six that do not. J. Econ. Perspect. 18:1163–90
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lindquist MJ, Santavirta T 2014. Does placing children in foster care increase their adult criminality. Labour Econ 31:72–83
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Lundahl B, Risser HJ, Lovejoy MC 2006. A meta-analysis of parent training: moderators and follow-up effects. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 26:86–104
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Markowitz S, Cuellar A, Conrad RM, Grossman M 2014. Alcohol control and foster care. Rev. Econ. Househ. 12:589–612
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Marshall E 2014. An experiment in zero parenting. Science 345:6198752–54
    [Google Scholar]
  80. McDonald TP, Allen RI, Westerfelt A, Piliavin I 1997. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of Foster Care: A Research Synthesis Washington, DC: Child Welf. League Am.
  81. Mersky JP, Topitzes J 2010. Comparing early adult outcomes of maltreated and non-maltreated children: a prospective longitudinal investigation. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 32:1086–96
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Mowbray O, Ryan JP, Victor BG, Bushman G, Yochum C, Perron BE 2017. Longitudinal trends in substance use and mental health service needs in child welfare. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 73:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Munyo I, Rossi MA 2015. The effects of real exchange rate fluctuations on the gender wage gap and domestic violence in Uruguay Tech. Rep Inter-Am. Dev. Bank Washington, DC:
  84. Nat. Res. Counc., Inst. Med. 1998. Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  85. Nou J, Timmins C 2005. How do changes in welfare law affect domestic violence? An analysis of Connecticut towns, 1990–2000. J. Legal Stud. 34:445–70
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Olds DL 2007. Preventing crime with prenatal and infancy support of parents: the nurse–family partnership. Vict. Offenders 2:205–25
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Osofsky JD 1999. The impact of violence on children. Future Child 9:333–49
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Paxson C, Waldfogel J 2002. Work, welfare, and child maltreatment. J. Labor Econ. 20:435–74
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Pollak RA 2005. Bargaining power in marriage: earnings, wage rates and household production NBER Work. Pap 11239
  90. Putnam-Hornstein E, Cederbaum JA, King B, Eastman AL, Trickett PK 2015. A population-level and longitudinal study of adolescent mothers and intergenerational maltreatment. Am. J. Epidemiol. 181:496–503
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Reilly T 2003. Transition from care: status and outcomes of youth who age out of foster care. Child Welf 82:6727–46
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Fitzmaurice G, Decker MR, Koenen KC 2010. Witness of intimate partner violence in childhood and perpetration of intimate partner violence in adulthood. Epidemiology 21:809–18
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Rosinsky K, Connelly DD 2016. Child welfare financing SFY 2014: a survey of federal, state, and local expenditures Rep Child Trends Bethesda, MD:
  94. Sacerdote B 2007. How large are the effects from changes in family environment? A study of Korean American adoptees. Q. J. Econ. 122:119–57
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Santavirta T 2012. How large are the effects from temporary changes in family environment: evidence from a child-evacuation program during World War II. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 4:328–42
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Santavirta T, Santavirta N, Betancourt TS, Gilman SE 2015. Long term mental health outcomes of Finnish children evacuated to Swedish families during the Second World War and their non-evacuated siblings: cohort study. BMJ 350:g7753
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Schoenmaker C, Juffer F, van IJzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ 2014. Does Family Matter? The Well-Being of Children Growing Up in Institutions, Foster Care and Adoption Dordrecht, Neth: Springer Neth.
  98. Seiglie C 2004. Understanding child outcomes: an application to child abuse and neglect. Rev. Econ. Househ. 2:143–60
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Shalev I, Moffitt TE, Sugden K, Williams B, Houts RM et al. 2013. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study. Mol. Psychiatry 18:576–81
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Sherman LW, Berk RA 1984. The specific deterrent effects of arrest for domestic assault. Am. Sociol. Rev. 49:2261–72
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Skemer M, Jacobs E 2016. Striving for independence: two-year impact findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation Rep MDRC Oakland, CA:
  102. Smith SG, Chen J, Basile KC, Gilbert LK, Merrick MT et al. 2017. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010–2012 state report Rep., Natl. Cent. Inj. Prev. Control, Div. Violence Prev., Cent. Dis. Control Prev Atlanta, GA:
  103. Smyke AT, Zeanah CH, Fox NA, Nelson CA 2009. A new model of foster care for young children: the Bucharest early intervention project. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am. 18:721–34
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Stephens DL 1999. Battered women's views of their children. J. Interpers. Violence 14:731–46
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Sternberg KJ, Baradaran LP, Abbott CB, Lamb ME, Guterman E 2006. Type of violence, age, and gender differences in the effects of family violence on children's behavior problems: a mega-analysis. Dev. Rev. 26:89–112
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Tauchen HV, Witte AD, Long SK 1991. Domestic violence: a nonrandom affair. Int. Econ. Rev. 32:2491–511
    [Google Scholar]
  107. U.S. Dep. Health Hum. Serv. 2016. The AFCARS report Rep., Child. Bur., Adm. Child. Youth Fam., Adm. Child. Fam., U.S. Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC:
  108. U.S. Dep. Health Hum. Serv. 2017. Child maltreatment 2015 Rep., Child. Bur., Adm. Child. Youth Fam., Adm. Child. Fam., U.S. Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC:
  109. Vinnerljung B, Brännström L, Hjern A 2015. Disability pension among adult former child welfare clients: a Swedish national cohort study. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 56:169–76
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Waldfogel J, Craigie TA, Brooks-Gunn J 2010. Fragile families and child wellbeing. Future Child 20:87–112
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Warburton WP, Warburton RN, Sweetman A, Hertzman C 2014. The impact of placing adolescent males into foster care on education, income assistance, and convictions. Can. J. Econ./Rev. Can. Écon. 47:35–69
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Widom CS 1989. The cycle of violence. Science 244:4901160–66
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Wildeman C, Emanuel N 2014. Cumulative risks of foster care placement by age 18 for US children, 2000–2011. PLOS ONE 9:e92785
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Wildeman C, Waldfogel J 2014. Somebody's children or nobody's children? How the sociological perspective could enliven research on foster care. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 40:599–618
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Winokur M, Holtan A, Batchelder K 2014. Kinship care for the safety, permanency, and well-being of maltreated children. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1:CD006546
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Wolfe DA, Crooks CV, Lee V, McIntyre-Smith A, Jaffe PG 2003. The effects of children's exposure to domestic violence: a meta-analysis and critique. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 6:171–87
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Worden A, McLean SJ 2010. Judicial attitudes about domestic violence Presented at Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Criminol Nov 17–20 San Francisco:
  118. Zeanah CH, Nelson CA, Fox NA, Smyke AT, Marshall P et al. 2003. Designing research to study the effects of institutionalization on brain and behavioral development: the Bucharest early intervention project. Dev. Psychopathol. 15:885–907
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053237
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-economics-080217-053237
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error