River plumes are generated by the flow of buoyant river water into the coastal ocean, where they significantly influence water properties and circulation. They comprise dynamically distinct regions spanning a large range of spatial and temporal scales, each contributing to the dilution and transport of freshwater as it is carried away from the source. River plume structure varies greatly among different plume systems, depending on the forcing and geometry of each system. Individual systems may also exhibit markedly different characteristics under varied forcing conditions. Research over the past decade, including a series of major observational efforts, has significantly improved our understanding of the dynamics and mixing processes in these regions. Although these studies have clarified many individual processes, a holistic description of the interaction and relative importance of different mixing and transport processes in river plumes has not yet been realized.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Agrawal Y, Terray EA, Donelan MA, Hwang PA, Williams AJ III. et al. 1992. Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves. Nature 359:219–20 [Google Scholar]
  2. Armi L, Farmer DM. 1986. Maximal two-layer exchange through a contraction with barotropic net flow. J. Fluid Mech. 164:27–51 [Google Scholar]
  3. Atkinson JF. 1993. Detachment of buoyant surface jets discharged on a slope. J. Hydraul. Eng. 119:878–94 [Google Scholar]
  4. Avicola G, Huq P. 2002. Scaling analysis for the interaction between a buoyant coastal current and the continental shelf: experiments and observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32:3233–48 [Google Scholar]
  5. Avicola G, Huq P. 2003a. The characteristics of the recirculating bulge region in coastal buoyant outflows. J. Mar. Res. 61:435–63 [Google Scholar]
  6. Avicola G, Huq P. 2003b. The role of outflow geometry in the formation of the recirculating bulge region in coastal buoyant outflows. J. Mar. Res. 61:411–34 [Google Scholar]
  7. Beardsley RC, Limeburner R, Yu H, Cannon GA. 1985. Discharge of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) into the East China Sea. Cont. Shelf Res. 4:57–76 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bormans M, Garrett C. 1989. The effect of rotation on the surface inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 19:1535–42 [Google Scholar]
  9. Burchard H, Hofmeister R. 2008. A dynamic equation for the potential energy anomaly for analysing mixing and stratification in estuaries and coastal seas. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77:679–87 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chant RJ. 2011. Interactions between estuaries and coasts: river plumes—their formation transport and dispersal. Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science 2 E Wolanski, D McLusky 213–35 Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  11. Chant RJ, Wilkin J, Zhang W, Choi B, Hunter E. et al. 2008. Dispersal of the Hudson River Plume in theNew York Bight: synthesis of observational and numerical studies during LaTTE. Oceanography 21148–61 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chapman DC, Lentz SJ. 1994. Trapping of a coastal density front by the bottom boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24:1464–79 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chen F, MacDonald DG. 2006. Role of mixing in the structure and evolution of a buoyant discharge plume. J. Geophys. Res. 111:C11002 [Google Scholar]
  14. Chen F, MacDonald DG, Hetland RD. 2009. Lateral spreading of a near-field river plume: observations and numerical simulations. J. Geophys. Res. 114:C07013 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chickadel CC, Talke SA, Horner-Devine AR, Jessup AT. 2011. Infrared-based measurements of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation at the water surface in a tidal river. Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. IEEE 8:849–53 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cochrane JD, Kelly FJ. 1986. Low-frequency circulation on the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res. 91:10645–59 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cole KL. 2014. A numerical study of the mid-field river plume PhD Thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College Station [Google Scholar]
  18. Craig PD, Banner ML. 1994. Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24:2546–59 [Google Scholar]
  19. Csanady GT. 1977. The coastal jet conceptual model in the dynamics of shallow seas. The Sea I Goldberg, N O'Brian, JH Steele 117–44 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  20. De Boer GJ, Pietrzak JD, Winterwerp JC. 2006. On the vertical structure of the Rhine region of freshwater influence. Ocean Dyn. 56:198–216 [Google Scholar]
  21. De Boer GJ, Pietrzak JD, Winterwerp JC. 2008. Using the potential energy anomaly equation to investigate tidal straining and advection of stratification in a region of freshwater influence. Ocean Model. 22:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  22. De Boer GJ, Pietrzak JD, Winterwerp JC. 2009. SST observations of upwelling induced by tidal straining in the Rhine ROFI. Cont. Shelf Res. 29:263–77 [Google Scholar]
  23. Donato TF, Marmorino GO. 2002. The surface morphology of a coastal gravity current. Cont. Shelf Res. 22:141–46 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dzwonkowski B, Yan X-H. 2005. Tracking of a Chesapeake Bay estuarine outflow plume with satellite-based ocean color data. Cont. Shelf Res. 25:1942–58 [Google Scholar]
  25. Farmer DM, Armi L. 1986. Maximal two-layer exchange over a sill and through the combination of a sill and contraction with barotropic flow. J. Fluid Mech. 164:53–76 [Google Scholar]
  26. Fisher NR, Simpson JH, Howarth MJ. 2002. Turbulent dissipation in the Rhine ROFI forced by tidal flow and wind stress. J. Sea Res. 8:249–58 [Google Scholar]
  27. Fong DA, Geyer WR. 2001. Response of a river plume during an upwelling favorable wind event. J. Geophys. Res. 106:1067–84 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fong DA, Geyer WR. 2002. The alongshore transport of freshwater in a surface-trapped river plume. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32:957–72 [Google Scholar]
  29. Garvine RW. 1984. Radial spreading of buoyant, surface plumes in coastal waters. J. Geophys. Res. 89:1989–96 [Google Scholar]
  30. Garvine RW. 1987. Estuary plumes and fronts in shelf waters: a layer model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17:1877–96 [Google Scholar]
  31. Garvine RW. 1995. A dynamical system for classifying buoyant coastal discharges. Cont. Shelf Res. 15:1585–96 [Google Scholar]
  32. Garvine RW. 2001. The impact of model configuration in studies of buoyant coastal discharge. J. Mar. Res. 59:193–225 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gemmrich J. 2010. Strong turbulence in the wave crest region. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40:583–95 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gerbi GP, Chant RJ, Wilkin JL. 2013. Breaking surface wave effects on river plume dynamics during upwelling-favorable winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 43:1959–80 [Google Scholar]
  35. Geyer WR, Hill P, Milligan T, Traykovski P. 2000. The structure of the Eel River plume during floods. Cont. Shelf Res. 20:2067–93 [Google Scholar]
  36. Geyer WR, Lavery AC, Scully ME, Trowbridge JH. 2010. Mixing by shear instability at high Reynolds number. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37:L22607 [Google Scholar]
  37. Geyer WR, MacCready P. 2014. The estuarine circulation. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 46:175–97 [Google Scholar]
  38. Halverson MJ, Palowicz R. 2008. Estuarine forcing of a river plume by river flow and tides. J. Geophys. Res. 113:C09033 [Google Scholar]
  39. Hetland RD. 2005. Relating river plume structure to vertical mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35:1667–88 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hetland RD. 2010. The effects of mixing and spreading on density in near-field river plumes. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 49:37–53 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hetland RD, DiMarco SF. 2012. Skill assessment of a hydrodynamic model of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf. Ocean Model. 43–44:64–76 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hetland RD, Hsu T-J. 2013. Freshwater and sediment dispersal in large river plumes. Biogeochemical Dynamics at Large River-Coastal Interfaces: Linkages with Global Climate Change TS Bianchi, MA Allison, W-J Cai 55–85 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  43. Hetland RD, MacDonald DG. 2008. Spreading in the near-field Merrimack River plume. Ocean Model. 21:12–21 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hickey BM, Kudela RM, Nash JD, Bruland KW, Peterson WT. et al. 2010. River influences on shelf ecosystems: introduction and synthesis. J. Geophys. Res. 115:C00B17 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hickey BM, Pietrafesa LJ, Jay DA, Boicourt WC. 1998. The Columbia River plume study: subtidal variability in the velocity and salinity fields. J. Geophys. Res. 103:10339–68 [Google Scholar]
  46. Horner-Devine AR. 2004. The dynamics of buoyant, rotational river plumes PhD Thesis, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA [Google Scholar]
  47. Horner-Devine AR. 2009. The bulge circulation in the Columbia River plume. Cont. Shelf Res. 29:234–51 [Google Scholar]
  48. Horner-Devine AR, Chickadel CC, MacDonald DG. 2013. Coherent structures and mixing at a river plume front. Coherent Flow Structures in Geophysical Flows at the Earth's Surface J Venditti, J Best, M Church, R Hardy 359–69 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  49. Horner-Devine AR, Fong DA, Monismith SG. 2008. Evidence for the inherent unsteadiness of a river plume: satellite observations of the Niagara River discharge. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53:2731–37 [Google Scholar]
  50. Horner-Devine AR, Fong DA, Monismith SG, Maxworthy T. 2006. Laboratory experiments simulating a coastal river discharge. J. Fluid Mech. 555:203–32 [Google Scholar]
  51. Horner-Devine AR, Jay DA, Orton PM, Spahn EY. 2009. A conceptual model of the strongly tidal Columbia River plume. J. Mar. Sys. 78:460–75 [Google Scholar]
  52. Houghton RW, Chant RJ, Rice A, Tilburg C. 2009. Salt flux into coastal river plumes: dye studies in the Delaware and Hudson River outflows. J. Mar. Res. 67:731–56 [Google Scholar]
  53. Houghton RW, Tilburg CE, Garvine RW, Fong A. 2004. Delaware River plume response to a strong upwelling-favorable wind event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L07302 [Google Scholar]
  54. Huq P. 2009. The role of Kelvin number on bulge formation from estuarine buoyant outflows. Estuaries Coasts 32:709–19 [Google Scholar]
  55. Imberger J, Ivey GN. 1991. On the nature of turbulence in a stratified fluid. Part II: Application to lakes. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 21:659–80 [Google Scholar]
  56. Isobe A. 2005. Ballooning of river-plume bulge and its stabilization by tidal currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35:2337–51 [Google Scholar]
  57. Itsweire EC, Koseff JR, Briggs DA, Ferziger JH. 1993. Turbulence in stratified shear flows: implications for interpreting shear-induced mixing in the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23:1508–22 [Google Scholar]
  58. Ivey GN, Imberger J. 1991. On the nature of turbulence in a stratified fluid. I: The energetics of mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 21:650–58 [Google Scholar]
  59. Ivey GN, Winters KB, Koseff JR. 2008. Density stratification, turbulence, but how much mixing?. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 40:169–84 [Google Scholar]
  60. Jay DA, Pan J, Orton PM, Horner-Devine AR. 2009. Asymmetry of tidal plume fronts in an eastern boundary current regime. J. Mar. Sys. 78:442–59 [Google Scholar]
  61. Jay DA, Zaron ED, Pan J. 2010. Initial expansion of the Columbia River tidal plume: theory and remote sensing observations. J. Geophys. Res. 115:C00B15 [Google Scholar]
  62. Jirka GH, Adams EE, Stolzenbach KD. 1981. Buoyant surface jets. J. Hydraul. Div. Proc. ASCE 107:HY111467–87 [Google Scholar]
  63. Johnson DR, Weidemann A, Arnone R, Davis CO. 2001. Chesapeake Bay outflow plume and coastal upwelling events: physical and optical properties. J. Geophys. Res. 106:11613–22 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jones GR, Nash JD, Doneker RL, Jirka GH. 2007. Buoyant surface discharges into water bodies. I: Flow classification and prediction methodology. J. Hydraul. Eng. 133:1010–20 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kantha L, Phillips O, Azad R. 1977. On turbulent entrainment at a stable density interface. J. Fluid Mech. 79:753–68 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kashiwamura M, Yoshida S. 1978. Outflow dynamics at a river mouth. Proc. 16th Coast. Eng. Conf.2925–44 Reston, VA: Am. Soc. Civil Eng. [Google Scholar]
  67. Kilcher L, Nash JD. 2010. Structure and dynamics of the Columbia River tidal plume front. J. Geophys. Res. 115:C05S90 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kilcher L, Nash JD, Moum JN. 2012. The role of turbulence stress divergence in decelerating a river plume. J. Geophys. Res. 117:C05032 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kirincich AR, Hebert D. 2005. The structure of the coastal density front at the outflow of Long Island Sound during spring 2002. Cont. Shelf Res. 25:1097–114 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kourafalou VH, Oey L-Y, Want JD, Lee TN. 1996. The fate of river discharge on the continental shelf: 1. Modeling the river plume and the inner shelf coastal current. J. Geophys. Res. 101:3415–34 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kudela RM, Horner-Devine AR, Banas NS, Hickey BM, Peterson TD. et al. 2010. Multiple trophic levels fueled by recirculation in the Columbia River plume. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37:L18607 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lentz SJ. 2004. The response of buoyant coastal plumes to upwelling-favorable winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34:2458–67 [Google Scholar]
  73. Lentz SJ, Helfrich KR. 2002. Buoyant gravity currents along a sloping bottom in a rotating fluid. J. Fluid Mech. 464:251–78 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lentz SJ, Limeburner R. 1995. The Amazon River plume during AMASSEDS: spatial characteristics and salinity variability. J. Geophys. Res. 100:2355–75 [Google Scholar]
  75. Liu Y, MacCready P, Hickey BM, Dever EP, Kosro PM, Banas NS. 2009. Evaluation of a coastal ocean circulation model for the Columbia River plume in summer 2004. J. Geophys. Res. 114:C00B04 [Google Scholar]
  76. Luketina DA, Imberger J. 1987. Characteristics of a surface buoyant jet. J. Geophys. Res. 92:5435–47 [Google Scholar]
  77. MacCready P, Banas NS, Hickey BM, Dever EP, Liu Y. 2009. A model study of tide- and wind-induced mixing in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Cont. Shelf Res. 29:278–91 [Google Scholar]
  78. MacCready P, Geyer WR. 2010. Advances in estuarine physics. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2:35–58 [Google Scholar]
  79. MacCready P, Rhines PB. 1993. Slippery bottom boundary layers on a slope. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23:5–22 [Google Scholar]
  80. MacDonald DG, Carlson J, Goodman L. 2013. On the heterogeneity of stratified-shear turbulence: observations from a near-field river plume. J. Geophys. Res. 118:6223–37 [Google Scholar]
  81. MacDonald DG, Chen F. 2012. Enhancement of turbulence through lateral spreading in a stratified-shear flow: development and assessment of a conceptual model. J. Geophys. Res. 117:C05025 [Google Scholar]
  82. MacDonald DG, Geyer WR. 2004. Turbulent energy production and entrainment at a highly stratified estuarine front. J. Geophys. Res. 109:C05004 [Google Scholar]
  83. MacDonald DG, Geyer WR. 2005. Hydraulic control of a highly stratified estuarine front. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35:374–87 [Google Scholar]
  84. MacDonald DG, Goodman L, Hetland RD. 2007. Turbulent dissipation in a near-field river plume: a comparison of control volume and microstructure observations with a numerical model. J. Geophys. Res. 112:C07026 [Google Scholar]
  85. Masse AK, Murthy CR. 1992. Analysis of the Niagara River plume dynamics. J. Geophys. Res. 97:2403–20 [Google Scholar]
  86. McCabe RM, Hickey BM, MacCready P. 2008. Observational estimates of entrainment and vertical salt flux in the interior of a spreading river plume. J. Geophys. Res. 113:C08027 [Google Scholar]
  87. McCabe RM, MacCready P, Hickey BM. 2009. Ebb tide dynamics and spreading of a large river plume. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39:2839–56 [Google Scholar]
  88. Milliman JD, Farnsworth KL. 2011. River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean: A Global Synthesis Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  89. Milliman JD, Meade RH. 1983. World-wide delivery of river sediment to the ocean. J. Geol. 91:1–21 [Google Scholar]
  90. Moum JN, Gregg MC, Lien RC, Carr ME. 1995. Comparison of turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from two ocean microstructure profilers. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12:346–66 [Google Scholar]
  91. Murray SP. 1998. An observational study of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya coastal plume, final report Rep., US Dep. Inter., Miner. Manag. Serv., Gulf of Mexico OCS Reg. [Google Scholar]
  92. Nash JD, Kilcher LF, Moum JN. 2009. Structure and composition of a strongly stratified, tidally pulsed river plume. J. Geophys. Res. 114:C00B12 [Google Scholar]
  93. Nash JD, Moum JN. 2005. River plumes as a source of large-amplitude internal waves in the coastal ocean. Nature 437:400–3 [Google Scholar]
  94. Nof D, Pichevin T. 2001. The ballooning of outflows. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31:3045–58 [Google Scholar]
  95. O'Donnell J. 2010. The dynamics of estuary plumes and fronts. Contemporary Issues in Estuarine Physics A Valle Levinson 186–246 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  96. O'Donnell J, Ackleson SG, Levine ER. 2008. On the spatial scales of a river plume. J. Geophys. Res. 113:C04017 [Google Scholar]
  97. Oey L-Y, Mellor GL. 1993. Subtidal variability of estuarine outflow, plume, and coastal current: a model study. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23:164–71 [Google Scholar]
  98. Orton PM, Jay DA. 2005. Observations at the tidal plume front of a high-volume river outflow. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32:L11605 [Google Scholar]
  99. Pichevin T, Nof D. 1997. The momentum imbalance paradox. Tellus A 49:298–319 [Google Scholar]
  100. Pritchard M, Huntley DA. 2006. A simplified energy and mixing budget for a small river plume discharge. J. Geophys. Res. 111:C03019 [Google Scholar]
  101. Rennie SE, Largier JL, Lentz SJ. 1999. Observations of a pulsed buoyancy current downstream of Chesapeake Bay. J. Geophys. Res. 104:18227–40 [Google Scholar]
  102. Sherman F, Imberger J, Corcos G. 1978. Turbulence and mixing in stably stratified waters. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 10:267–88 [Google Scholar]
  103. Simpson JH. 1997. Physical processes in the ROFI regime. J. Mar. Syst. 12:3–15 [Google Scholar]
  104. Simpson JH, Bos WG, Schirmer F, Souza AJ, Rippeth TP. et al. 1993. Periodic stratification in the Rhine ROFI in the North Sea. Oceanol. Acta 16:23–32 [Google Scholar]
  105. Simpson JH, Crisp DJ, Hearn C. 1981. The shelf-sea fronts: implications of their existence and behaviour. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 302:531–46 [Google Scholar]
  106. Smyth W, Moum JN. 2000. Length scales of turbulence in stably stratified mixing layers. Phys. Fluids 12:1327–42 [Google Scholar]
  107. Smyth W, Moum JN, Caldwell DR. 2001. The efficiency of mixing in turbulent patches: inferences from direct simulations and microstructure observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31:1969–92 [Google Scholar]
  108. Souza AJ, Simpson JH. 1996. The modification of tidal ellipses by stratification in the Rhine ROFI. Cont. Shelf Res. 16:997–1007 [Google Scholar]
  109. Stacey MT, Rippeth TP, Nash JD. 2011. Turbulence and stratification in estuaries and coastal seas. Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science 2 E Wolanski, D McLusky 9–35 Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  110. Tedford EW, Carpenter JR, Pawlowicz R, Pieters R, Lawrence GA. 2009. Observation and analysis of shear instability in the Fraser River estuary. J. Geophys. Res. 114:C11006 [Google Scholar]
  111. Terray EA, Donelan MA, Agrawal YC, Drennan WM, Kahma KK. et al. 1996. Estimates of kinetic energy dissipation under breaking waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26:792–807 [Google Scholar]
  112. Thomson J. 2012. Wave breaking dissipation observed with SWIFT drifters. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 29:1866–82 [Google Scholar]
  113. Thorpe SA. 1969. Experiments on the stability of stratified shear flows. J. Radio Sci. 4:1327–31 [Google Scholar]
  114. Thorpe SA. 1973. Experiments on instability and turbulence in a stratified shear flow. J. Fluid Mech. 61:731–51 [Google Scholar]
  115. Tilburg C, Houghton RW, Garvine RW. 2007. Mixing of a dye tracer in the Delaware plume: comparison of observations and simulations. J. Geophys. Res. 112:C12004 [Google Scholar]
  116. Trenberth KE, Smith L, Qian T, Dai A, Fasullo J. 2007. Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data. J. Hydrometeorol. 8:758–69 [Google Scholar]
  117. Trowbridge JH. 1992. A simple description of the deepening and structure of a stably stratified flow driven by a surface stress. J. Geophys. Res. 97:15529–43 [Google Scholar]
  118. Levinson A, Li C, Royer TC, Atkinson LP. Valle 1998. Flow patterns at the Chesapeake Bay entrance. Cont. Shelf Res. 18:1157–77 [Google Scholar]
  119. Verspecht F, Rippeth TP, Howarth MJ, Souza AJ, Simpson JH, Burchard H. 2009. Processes impacting on stratification in a region of freshwater influence: application to Liverpool Bay. J. Geophys. Res. 114:C11022 [Google Scholar]
  120. Visser AW, Souza AJ, Hessner K, Simpson JH. 1994. The effect of stratification on tidal current profiles in a region of freshwater influence. Oceanol. Acta 17:369–81 [Google Scholar]
  121. Whitehead JA. 1985. The deflection of a baroclinic jet by a wall in a rotating fluid. J. Fluid Mech. 157:79–93 [Google Scholar]
  122. Whitney MM, Garvine RW. 2005. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow. J. Geophys. Res. 110:C03014 [Google Scholar]
  123. Whitney MM, Garvine RW. 2006. Simulating the Delaware Bay buoyant outflow: comparison with observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 36:3–21 [Google Scholar]
  124. Winters KB, Lombard PN, Riley JJ, D'Asaro EA. 1995. Available potential energy and mixing in density-stratified fluids. J. Fluid Mech. 289:115–28 [Google Scholar]
  125. Wiseman WJ Jr, Garvine RW. 1995. Plumes and coastal currents near large river mouths. Estuaries 18:509–17 [Google Scholar]
  126. Wright LD, Coleman JM. 1971. Effluent expansion and interfacial mixing in the presence of a salt wedge, Mississippi River delta. J. Geophys. Res. 76:8649–61 [Google Scholar]
  127. Wunsch C, Ferrari R. 2004. Vertical mixing, energy, and the general circulation of the oceans. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 36:281–314 [Google Scholar]
  128. Yankovsky AE, Chapman DC. 1997. A simple theory for the fate of buoyant coastal discharges. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27:1386–401 [Google Scholar]
  129. Yuan Y, Averner ME, Horner-Devine AR. 2011. A two-color optical method for determining layer thickness in two interacting buoyant plumes. Exp. Fluids 50:1235–45 [Google Scholar]
  130. Yuan Y, Horner-Devine AR. 2013. Laboratory investigation of the impact of lateral spreading on buoyancy flux in a river plume. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 43:2588–610 [Google Scholar]
  131. Zhang X, Hetland RD, Marta-Almeida M, DiMarco SF. 2012. A numerical investigation of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya freshwater transport, filling and flushing times on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf. J. Geophys. Res. 117:C11009 [Google Scholar]
  132. Zhang Z. 2013. Wind- and buoyancy-modulated along-shore circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf PhD Thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College Station [Google Scholar]
  133. Zhang Z, Hetland RD. 2012. A numerical study on convergence of alongshore flows over the Texas-Louisiana shelf. J. Geophys. Res. 117:C11010 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error