1932

Abstract

Lakes and other confined water bodies are not exposed to tides, and their wind forcing is usually much weaker compared to ocean basins and estuaries. Hence, convective processes are often the dominant drivers for shaping mixing and stratification structures in inland waters. Due to the diverse environments of lakes—defined by local morphological, geochemical, and meteorological conditions, among others—a fascinating variety of convective processes can develop with remarkably unique signatures. Whereas the classical cooling-induced and shear-induced convections are well-known phenomena due to their dominant roles in ocean basins, other convective processes are specific to lakes and often overlooked, for example, sidearm, under-ice, and double-diffusive convection or thermobaric instability and bioconvection. Additionally, the peculiar properties of the density function at low salinities/temperatures leave distinctive traces. In this review, we present these various processes and connect observations with theories and model results.

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2019-01-05
2024-04-18
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