This review article focuses on the modeling of complex granular flows employing the discrete element method (DEM) approach. The specific topic discussed is the application of DEM models for the study of the flow behavior of nonspherical, flexible, or cohesive particles, including particle breakage. The major sources of particle cohesion—liquid induced, electrostatics, van der Waals forces—and their implementation into DEM simulations are covered. These aspects of particle flow are of great importance in practical applications and hence are the significant foci of research at the forefront of current DEM modeling efforts. For example, DEM simulations of nonspherical grains can provide particle stress information needed to develop constitutive models for continuum-based simulations of large-scale industrial processes.


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