This article reviews the principal experimental methods currently available to simultaneously measure all the terms of the velocity gradient tensor of turbulent flows. These methods have been available only for a little more than 20 years. They have provided access to the most fundamental and defining properties of turbulence. The methods include small, multisensor, hot-wire probes that provide single-location, time-resolved measurements of the tensor and various optical arrangements, most of which provide the tensor information over a larger spatial extent but, in most cases, without resolution in time. Data-reduction algorithms, spatial-resolution issues, and the use of Taylor's hypothesis are addressed in evaluating the accuracy of the various methods.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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