1932

Abstract

Large-amplitude internal waves induce currents and turbulence in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) and are thus a key driver of sediment movement on the continental margins. Observations of internal wave–induced sediment resuspension and transport cover significant portions of the world's oceans. Research on BBL instabilities, induced by internal waves, has identified several mechanisms by which the BBL is energized and sediment may be resuspended. Due to the complexity of the induced currents, process-oriented research using theory, direct numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments has played a vital role. However, experiments and simulations have inherent limitations as analogs for oceanic conditions due to disparities in Reynolds number and grid resolution, respectively. Parameterizations are needed for modeling resuspension from observed data and in larger-scale models, with the efficacy of parameterizations based on the quadratic stress largely determining the accuracy of present field-scale efforts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045049
2019-01-05
2024-06-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/fluid/51/1/annurev-fluid-122316-045049.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045049&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aghsaee P, Boegman L 2015. Experimental investigation of sediment resuspension beneath internal solitary waves of depression. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120:3301–14
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aghsaee P, Boegman L, Diamessis PJ, Lamb KG 2012. Boundary-layer-separation-driven vortex shedding beneath internal solitary waves of depression. J. Fluid Mech. 690:321–44
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aghsaee P, Boegman L, Lamb KG 2010. Breaking of shoaling internal solitary waves. J. Fluid Mech. 659:289–317
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arthur RS, Fringer OB 2014. The dynamics of breaking internal solitary waves on slopes. J. Fluid Mech. 761:360–98
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Arthur RS, Fringer OB 2016. Transport by breaking internal gravity waves on slopes. J. Fluid Mech. 789:93–126
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baines PG 2008. Mixing in downslope flows in the ocean‐plumes versus gravity currents. Atmos. Ocean 46:405–19
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Barad MF, Fringer OB 2010. Simulations of shear instabilities in interfacial gravity waves. J. Fluid Mech. 644:61–95
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barth JA, Lerczak JA, Calantoni J, Chickadel CC, Colosi JA et al. 2018. An overview of the 2017 Point Sal, California, Inner Shelf Dynamics experiment Paper presented at the 2018 Ocean Sciences Meeting Portland, OR: Feb. 11–16
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Belde J, Back S, Reuning L, Eberli G 2015. Three-dimensional seismic analysis of sediment waves and related geomorphological features on a carbonate shelf exposed to large amplitude internal waves, Browse Basin region, Australia. Sedimentology 62:87–109
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bluteau CE, Smith S-L, Ivey GN, Schlosser TL, Jones NL 2016. Assessing the relationship between bed shear stress estimates and observations of sediment resuspension in the ocean Paper presented at 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Dec. 5–8. https://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/imarusic/proceedings/20/473%20Paper.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bøe R, Skarðhamar J, Rise L, Dolan MFJ, Bellec VK et al. 2015. Sandwaves and sand transport on the Barents Sea continental slope offshore northern Norway. Mar. Petroleum Geol. 60:34–53
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Boegman L, Imberger J, Ivey GN, Antenucci JP 2003. High‐frequency internal waves in large stratified lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48:895–919
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Boegman L, Ivey GN 2009. Flow separation and resuspension beneath shoaling nonlinear internal waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114:C02018
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Boegman L, Ivey GN, Imberger J 2005.a The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50:1620–37
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Boegman L, Ivey GN, Imberger J 2005.b The energetics of large-scale internal wave degeneration in lakes. J. Fluid Mech. 531:159–180
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bogucki D, Dickey T, Redekopp LG 1997. Sediment resuspension and mixing by resonantly generated internal solitary waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27:1181–96
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bogucki DJ, Redekopp LG 1999. A mechanism for sediment resuspension by internal solitary waves. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26:1317–20
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bogucki DJ, Redekopp LG, Barth J 2005. Internal solitary waves in the Coastal Mixing and Optics 1996 experiment: multimodal structure and resuspension. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110:C02024
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bonnin J, van Haren H, Hosegood P, Brummer G-JA 2006. Burst resuspension of seabed material at the foot of the continental slope in the Rockall Channel. Mar. Geol. 226:167–84
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Botelho DA, Imberger J 2007. Downscaling model resolution to illuminate the internal wave field in a small stratified lake. J. Hydraul. Eng. 133:1206–18
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bourgault D, Kelley DE 2003. Wave-induced boundary mixing in a partially mixed estuary. J. Mar. Res. 61:553–76
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bourgault D, Kelley DE 2004. A laterally averaged nonhydrostatic ocean model. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21:1910–24
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bourgault D, Morsilli M, Richards C, Neumeier U, Kelley DE 2014. Sediment resuspension and nepheloid layers induced by long internal solitary waves shoaling orthogonally on uniform slopes. Cont. Shelf Res. 72:21–33
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Briggs RJ 1964. Electron-Stream Interaction with Plasmas Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Butman B, Alexander PS, Scotti A, Beardsley RC, Anderson SP 2006. Large internal waves in Massachusetts Bay transport sediments offshore. Cont. Shelf Res. 26:2029–49
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cacchione DA, Pratson LF, Ogston AS 2002. The shaping of continental slopes by internal tides. Science 296:724–27
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Carr M, Davies PA 2006. The motion of an internal solitary wave of depression over a fixed bottom boundary in a shallow, two-layer fluid. Phys. Fluids 18:016601
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Carr M, Davies PA 2010. Boundary layer flow beneath an internal solitary wave of elevation. Phys. Fluids 22:026601
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Carr M, Davies PA, Shivaram P 2008. Experimental evidence of internal solitary wave-induced global instability in shallow water benthic boundary layers. Phys. Fluids 20:066603
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Carr M, Stastna M, Davies PA 2010. Internal solitary wave-induced flow over a corrugated bed. Ocean Dyn 60:1007–25
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Carter GS, Gregg MC, Lien R-C 2005. Internal waves, solitary-like waves, and mixing on the Monterey Bay shelf. Cont. Shelf Res. 25:1499–520
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Chang M-H, Lien R-C, Tang TY, D'Asaro EA, Yang YJ 2006. Energy flux of nonlinear internal waves in northern South China Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L03607
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Cheriton OM, McPhee‐Shaw EE, Shaw WJ, Stanton TP, Bellingham JG, Storlazzi CD 2014.a Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: An important control on shelf mud belts. ? J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119:428–44
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cheriton OM, McPhee‐Shaw EE, Storlazzi CD, Rosenberger KJ, Shaw WJ, Raanan BY 2014.b Upwelling rebound, ephemeral secondary pycnoclines, and the creation of a near‐bottom wave guide over the Monterey Bay continental shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41:8503–11
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Chomaz J-M 2005. Global instabilities in spatially developing flows: non-normality and nonlinearity. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 37:357–92
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Deepwell D, Stastna M, Carr M, Davies PA 2017. Interaction of a mode-2 internal solitary wave with narrow isolated topography. Phys. Fluids 29:076601
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Diamessis PJ, Redekopp LG 2006. Numerical investigation of solitary internal wave-induced global instability in shallow water benthic boundary layers. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 36:784–812
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dorostkar A, Boegman L, Pollard A 2017. Three-dimensional simulation of high-frequency nonlinear internal wave dynamics in Cayuga Lake. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122:2183–204
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Droghei R, Falcini F, Casalbore D, Martorelli E, Mosetti R et al. 2016. The role of internal solitary waves on deep-water sedimentary processes: the case of up-slope migrating sediment waves off the Messina Strait. Sci. Rep. 6:36376
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Farmer DM 1978. Observations of long nonlinear internal waves in a lake. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 8:63–73
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Fringer OB 2009. Towards nonhydrostatic ocean modeling with large-eddy simulation. Oceanography 2025:81–83
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Fringer OB, Gerritsen M, Street R 2006. An unstructured-grid, finite-volume, nonhydrostatic, parallel coastal ocean simulator. Ocean Model 14:139–73
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Fringer OB, Street RL 2003. The dynamics of breaking progressive interfacial waves. J. Fluid Mech. 494:319–53
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Fructus D, Carr M, Grue J, Jensen A, Davies PA 2009. Shear-induced breaking of large internal solitary waves. J. Fluid Mech. 620:1–29
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Harnanan S, Soontiens N, Stastna M 2015. Internal wave boundary layer interaction: a novel instability over broad topography. Phys. Fluids 27:016605
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Haury LR, Briscoe MG, Orr MH 1979. Tidally generated internal wave packets in Massachusetts Bay. Nature 278:312
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Heap A, Harris P 2008. Geomorphology of the Australian margin and adjacent seafloor. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 55:555–85
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Helfrich C 1992. Internal solitary wave breaking and run-up on a uniform slope. . J. Fluid Mech 243:133–54
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Helfrich KR, Melville WK 2006. Long nonlinear internal waves. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38:395–425
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hosegood P, Bonnin J, van Haren H 2004. Solibore-induced sediment resuspension in the Faeroe-Shetland Channel. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L09301
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hosegood P, van Haren H 2004. Near-bed solibores over the continental slope in the Faeroe-Shetland Channel. Deep Sea Res. II 51:2943–71
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Huang X, Chen Z, Zhao W, Zhang Z, Zhou C et al. 2016. An extreme internal solitary wave event observed in the northern South China Sea. Sci. Rep. 6:30041
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hulscher SJMH, Dohmen-Janssen CM 2005. Introduction to special section on marine sand wave and river dune dynamics. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf. 110:F04S01
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ivey G, Nokes R 1989. Vertical mixing due to the breaking of critical internal waves on sloping boundaries. J. Fluid Mech. 204:479–500
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Jackson C 2007. Internal wave detection using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). J. Geophys. Res. 112:C11012
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Jackson CR, Da Silva JC, Jeans G 2012. The generation of nonlinear internal waves. Oceanography 25:108–23
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Johnson DR, Weidemann A, Pegau WS 2001. Internal tidal bores and bottom nepheloid layers. Cont. Shelf Res. 21:1473–84
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Jones NL, Ivey GN 2017. Internal waves. Encyclopedia of Maritime and Offshore Engineering PJ Carlton, YW Choo Hoboken, NJ: Wiley https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118476406.emoe089
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  59. Kamphuis JW 2010. Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Management Singapore: World Sci. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Karl H, Cacchione D, Carlson P 1986. Internal-wave currents as a mechanism to account for large sand waves in Navarinsky Canyon head, Bering Sea. J. Sediment. Res. 56:706–14
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Klymak JM, Moum JN 2003. Internal solitary waves of elevation advancing on a shoaling shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30:202045
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Lamb KG 2002. A numerical investigation of solitary internal waves with trapped cores formed via shoaling. J. Fluid Mech. 451:109–44
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Lamb KG 2014. Internal wave breaking and dissipation mechanisms on the continental slope/shelf. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 46:231–54
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Lamb KG, Xiao W 2014. Internal solitary waves shoaling onto a shelf: comparisons of weakly-nonlinear and fully nonlinear models for hyperbolic-tangent stratifications. Ocean Model 78:17–34
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Legg S, Adcroft A 2003. Internal wave breaking at concave and convex continental slopes. J. Geophys. Oceanogr. 33:2224–46
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Lien RC 2005. Energy of nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32:L05615
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Lin SQ, Valipour R, Zhao YM, Boegman L 2016. Sediment resuspension modeling in Lake Erie Paper presented at the 59th Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research Guelph, Ont.: June 6–10
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Luzzatto-Fegiz P, Helfrich KR 2014. Laboratory experiments and simulations for solitary internal waves with trapped cores. J. Fluid Mech. 757:354–80
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Ma X, Yan J, Hou Y, Lin F, Zheng X 2016. Footprints of obliquely incident internal solitary waves and internal tides near the shelf break in the northern South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 121:8706–19
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Manes C, Brocchini M 2015. Local scour around structures and the phenomenology of turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 779:309–24
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Masunaga E, Arthur RS, Fringer OB, Yamazaki H 2017. Sediment resuspension and the generation of intermediate nepheloid layers by shoaling internal bores. J. Mar. Syst. 170:31–41
    [Google Scholar]
  72. McPhee-Shaw E 2006. Boundary–interior exchange: reviewing the idea that internal-wave mixing enhances lateral dispersal near continental margins. Deep Sea Res. II 53:42–59
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Meiburg E, Kneller B 2010. Turbidity currents and their deposits. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42:135–56
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Michallet H, Ivey G 1999. Experiments on mixing due to internal solitary waves breaking on uniform slopes. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104:13467–77
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Moum JN 2012. Advances in oceanic nonlinear internal waves: highlights of the new millennium Paper presented at the 2012 Ocean Sciences Meeting Salt Lake City, UT: Feb. 20–24
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Moum JN, Farmer DM, Smyth WD, Armi L, Vagle S et al. 2003. Structure and generation of turbulence at interfaces strained by internal solitary waves propagating shoreward over the continental shelf. J. Geophys. Oceanogr. 33:2093–112
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Moum JN, Klymak JM, Nash JD, Perlin A, Smyth WD 2007. Energy transport by nonlinear internal waves. J. Geophys. Oceanogr. 37:1968–88
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Nakayama K, Shintani T, Kokubo K, Kakinuma T, Maruya Y et al. 2012. Residual currents over a uniform slope due to breaking of internal waves in a two‐layer system. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 117:C10002
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Nash JD, Moum JN 2005. River plumes as a source of large-amplitude internal waves in the coastal ocean. Nature 437:400
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Nemeth A, Hulscher SJ, de Vriend HJ 2003. Offshore sand wave dynamics, engineering problems and future solutions. Pipeline Gas J 230:67–69
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Newman B 1961. The deflection of plane jets by adjacent boundaries—Coanda effect. Boundary Layer Flow Control 1 GV Lachmann 232–64 New York: Pergamon
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Olsthoorn J, Stastna M 2014. Numerical investigation of internal wave‐induced sediment motion: resuspension versus entrainment. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41:2876–82
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Orr MH, Mignerey PC 2003. Nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea: observation of the conversion of depression internal waves to elevation internal waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 108:C33064
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Ostrovsky L, Stepanyants YA 2005. Internal solitons in laboratory experiments: comparison with theoretical models. Chaos 15:037111
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Pomar L, Morsilli M, Hallock P, Bádenas B 2012. Internal waves, an under-explored source of turbulence events in the sedimentary record. Earth-Sci. Rev. 111:56–81
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Quaresma LS, Vitorino J, Oliveira A, da Silva J 2007. Evidence of sediment resuspension by nonlinear internal waves on the western Portuguese mid-shelf. Mar. Geol. 246:123–43
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Rayson MD, Ivey GN, Jones NL, Meuleners MJ, Wake GW 2011. Internal tide dynamics in a topographically complex region: Browse Basin, Australian North West Shelf. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116:C01016
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Rayson MD, Jones N, Ivey G 2012. Temporal variability of the standing internal tide in the Browse Basin, Western Australia. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 117:C06013
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Reeder DB, Ma BB, Yang YJ 2011. Very large subaqueous sand dunes on the upper continental slope in the South China Sea generated by episodic, shoaling deep-water internal solitary waves. Mar. Geol. 279:12–18
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Ribó M, Puig P, Muñoz A, Lo Iacono C, Masqué P et al. 2016. Morphobathymetric analysis of the large fine-grained sediment waves over the Gulf of Valencia continental slope (NW Mediterranean). Geomorphology 253:22–37
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Richards C, Bourgault D, Galbraith PS, Hay A, Kelley DE 2013. Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:273–86
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Sandstrom H, Elliott JA 1984. Internal tide and solitons on the Scotian Shelf: a nutrient pump at work. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 89:6415–26
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Santoro VC, Amore E, Cavallaro L, Cozzo G, Foti E 2002. Sand waves in the Messina Strait, Italy. J. Coastal Res. 36:640–53
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Santoro VC, Amore E, Cavallaro L, De Lauro M 2004. Evolution of sand waves in the Messina Strait, Italy. Ocean Dyn 54:392–98
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Sarkar S, Scotti A 2017. From topographic internal gravity waves to turbulence. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 49:195–220
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Scalo C, Boegman L, Piomelli U 2013. Large‐eddy simulation and low‐order modeling of sediment‐oxygen uptake in a transitional oscillatory flow. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:1926–39
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Scotti A, Pineda J 2004. Observation of very large and steep internal waves of elevation near the Massachusetts coast. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L22307
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Scotti A, Pineda J 2007. Plankton accumulation and transport in propagating nonlinear internal fronts. J. Mar. Res. 65:117–45
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Selli R, Colantoni P, Fabbri A, Rossi S, Borsetti A, Gallignani P 1978. Marine geological investigation on the Messina Strait and its approaches. G. Geol. 42:1–70
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Shroyer EL, Moum JN, Nash JD 2009. Observations of polarity reversal in shoaling nonlinear internal waves. J. Geophys. Oceanogr. 39:691–701
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Soontiens N, Stastna M, Waite ML 2015. Topographically generated internal waves and boundary layer instabilities. Phys. Fluids 27:086602
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Southard JB, Cacchione DA 1972. Experiments on bottom sediment movement by breaking internal waves. Shelf-Sediment Transport: Process and Pattern DJP Swift, DB Duane, OH Pilkey 83–97 Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Stastna M, Lamb KG 2008. Sediment resuspension mechanisms associated with internal waves in coastal waters. J. Geophys. Res. 113:C10016
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Stefanakis T 2010. Bottom boundary layer instabilities induced by nonlinear internal waves MSc Thesis, Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY:
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Sumer BM, Jensen PM, Sørensen LB, Fredsøe J, Liu PL-F, Carstensen S 2010. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion. J. Fluid Mech. 646:207–31
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Sutherland BR, Barrett KJ, Ivey GN 2013. Shoaling internal solitary waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:4111–24
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Thorpe SA 1971. Asymmetry of the internal seiche in Loch Ness. Nature 231:306
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Thorpe SA 1998. Some dynamical effects of internal waves and the sloping sides of lakes. Physical Processes in Lakes and Oceans J Imberger 441–60 Washington, DC: Am. Geophys. Union
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Valipour R, Boegman L, Bouffard D, Rao YR 2017. Sediment resuspension mechanisms and their contributions to high-turbidity events in a large lake. Limnol. Oceanogr. 62:1045–65
    [Google Scholar]
  110. van Haren H, Ribó M, Puig P 2013. (Sub‐)inertial wave boundary turbulence in the Gulf of Valencia. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:2067–73
    [Google Scholar]
  111. van Rijn LC 1993. Principles of Sediment Transport in Rivers, Estuaries and Coastal Seas Amsterdam: Aqua
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Verschaeve JC, Pedersen GK, Tropea C 2018. Non-modal stability analysis of the boundary layer under solitary waves. J. Fluid Mech. 836:740–72
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Vlasenko V, Hutter K 2002. Numerical experiments on the breaking of solitary internal wavesover a slope–shelf topography. J. Geophys. Oceanogr. 32:1779–93
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Vlasenko V, Stashchuk N 2007. Three-dimensional shoaling of large-amplitude internal waves. J. Geophys. Res. 112:C11018
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Voermans J, Ghisalberti M, Ivey G 2017. The variation of flow and turbulence across the sediment–water interface. J. Fluid Mech. 824:413–37
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Wallace B, Wilkinson D 1988. Run-up of internal waves on a gentle slope in a two-layered system. J. Fluid Mech. 191:419–42
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Wang YH, Dai CF, Chen YY 2007. Physical and ecological processes of internal waves on an isolated reef ecosystem in the South China Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34:L18609
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Wijesekera H, Wang D, Teague W, Jarosz E, Rogers W et al. 2013. Surface wave effects on high-frequency currents over a shelf edge bank. J. Geophys. Oceanogr. 43:1627–47
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Zhang Z, Fringer OB, Ramp SR 2011. Three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic numerical simulation of nonlinear internal wave generation and propagation in the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 116:C05022
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045049
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045049
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error