1932

Abstract

An overview of the acoustics of boundary layer flows over rough surfaces and surfaces with discontinuities at low Mach number is presented. Roughness noise is dominated by dipole radiation produced by unsteady tangential pressure forces on the uneven surface. Pressure fluctuations may be generated by turbulence of the overriding boundary layer or by the wakes of upstream roughness features, but in either case the sound can be predicted from the wall pressure frequency spectrum and the surface geometry. Small discontinuities, such as steps and gaps, are special cases of isolated two-dimensional roughness. Forward steps are much louder than backward steps because the former generate strong turbulence close to the step. Gap noise is dominated by any exposed forward-step portion of the gap. Rounding can substantially reduce forward step noise, and moderate sweep does not alter the noise-generation mechanism.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045056
2018-01-05
2024-04-20
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