Recent advances in genetic sequencing are transforming our approach to rare-disease care. Initially identified in cancer, gain-of-function mutations of the gene are also detected in malformation mosaic diseases categorized as -related disorders (PRDs). Over the past decade, new approaches have enabled researchers to elucidate the pathophysiology of PRDs and uncover novel therapeutic options. In just a few years, owing to vigorous global research efforts, PRDs have been transformed from incurable diseases to chronic disorders accessible to targeted therapy. However, new challenges for both medical practitioners and researchers have emerged. Areas of uncertainty remain in our comprehension of PRDs, especially regarding the relationship between genotype and phenotype, the mechanisms underlying mosaicism, and the processes involved in intercellular communication. As the clinical and biological landscape of PRDs is constantly evolving, this review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding and its role in nonmalignant human disease, from molecular mechanisms to evidence-based treatments.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 25 is August 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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