The immune system and the kidneys are closely related. Immune components mediate acute kidney disease and are crucial to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Beyond its pathogenic functions, the immune system supports immunological homeostasis in healthy kidneys. The kidneys help maintain immune equilibrium by removing metabolic waste products and toxins, thereby limiting local and systemic inflammation. In this review, we describe the close relationship between the immune system and the kidneys. We discuss how the imbalance in the immune response can be deleterious to the kidneys and how immunomodulation can be important in preventing end-stage renal disease. In addition, recent tools such as in silico platforms and kidney organoids can help unveil the relationship between immune cells and kidney homeostasis.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 42 is April 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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