T follicular helper (Tfh) cells specialize in helping B cells and are therefore critical contributors to the generation of humoral immunity. Tfh cells aid immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and support the germinal center response, thereby promoting immunoglobulin affinity maturation and the generation of humoral immune memory. Although their primary function is to promote B cell responses, Tfh cells also display phenotypic and functional diversity determined by the immunological and spatial contexts from which they emerge. We review recent advances in understanding the heterogeneity within Tfh cell subsets along with their differentiation and migratory trajectory, the phenotype they adopt, their ontological relationships with one another, and their function in their respective environments.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 42 is April 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error