1932

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed an emergence of interest in understanding metabolic changes associated with immune responses, termed immunometabolism. As oxygen is central to all aerobic metabolism, hypoxia is now recognized to contribute fundamentally to inflammatory and immune responses. Studies from a number of groups have implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in innate immunity of healthy tissue (physiologic hypoxia) and during active inflammation (inflammatory hypoxia). This inflammatory hypoxia emanates from a combination of recruited inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes), high rates of oxidative metabolism, and the activation of multiple oxygen-consuming enzymes during inflammation. These localized shifts toward hypoxia have identified a prominent role for the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the regulation of innate immunity. Such studies have provided new and enlightening insight into our basic understanding of immune mechanisms, and extensions of these findings have identified potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize recent literature around the topic of innate immunity and mucosal hypoxia with a focus on transcriptional responses mediated by HIF.

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2020-04-26
2024-06-15
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