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Abstract

The innate immune system detects pathogens via germline-encoded receptors that bind to conserved pathogen ligands called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Here we consider an additional strategy of pathogen sensing called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI involves detection of pathogen-encoded virulence factors, also called effectors. Pathogens produce effectors to manipulate hosts to create a replicative niche and/or block host immunity. Unlike PAMPs, effectors are often diverse and rapidly evolving and can thus be unsuitable targets for direct detection by germline-encoded receptors. Effectors are instead often sensed indirectly via detection of their virulence activities. ETI is a viable strategy for pathogen sensing and is used across diverse phyla, including plants, but the molecular mechanisms of ETI are complex compared to simple receptor/ligand-based PAMP detection. Here we survey the mechanisms and functions of ETI, with a particular focus on emerging insights from animal studies. We suggest that many examples of ETI may remain to be discovered, hiding in plain sight throughout immunology.

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2023-04-26
2024-04-21
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