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Abstract

Type 2 immunity mediates protective responses to helminths and pathological responses to allergens, but it also has broad roles in the maintenance of tissue integrity, including wound repair. Type 2 cytokines are known to promote fibrosis, an overzealous repair response, but their contribution to healthy wound repair is less well understood. This review discusses the evidence that the canonical type 2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, are integral to the tissue repair process through two main pathways. First, essential for the progression of effective tissue repair, IL-4 and IL-13 suppress the initial inflammatory response to injury. Second, these cytokines regulate how the extracellular matrix is modified, broken down, and rebuilt for effective repair. IL-4 and/or IL-13 amplifies multiple aspects of the tissue repair response, but many of these pathways are highly redundant and can be induced by other signals. Therefore, the exact contribution of IL-4Rα signaling remains difficult to unravel.

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2023-04-26
2024-04-15
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