1932

Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-11 is upregulated in a wide variety of fibro-inflammatory diseases such as systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, kidney disease, drug-induced liver injury, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. IL-11 is a member of the IL-6 cytokine family and has several distinct properties that define its unique and nonredundant roles in disease. The IL-11 receptor is highly expressed on stromal, epithelial and polarized cells, where noncanonical IL-11 signaling drives the three pathologies common to all fibro-inflammatory diseases—myofibroblast activation, parenchymal cell dysfunction, and inflammation—while also inhibiting tissue regeneration. This cytokine has been little studied, and publications on IL-11 peaked in the early 1990s, when it was largely misunderstood. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of IL-11 biology, outline how misconceptions as to its function came about, and highlight the large potential of therapies targeting IL-11 signaling for treating human disease.

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2020-01-27
2024-04-22
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