1932

Abstract

The prevalence of diabetes in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has varied worldwide. Most of the available evidence suggests a significant increase in severity and mortality of COVID-19 in people with either type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in association with poor glycemic control. While new-onset hyperglycemia and new-onset diabetes (both T1DM and T2DM) have been increasingly recognized in the context of COVID-19 and have been associated with worse outcome, no conclusive evidence yet suggests direct tropism of SARS-CoV-2 on the β cells of pancreatic islets. While all approved oral antidiabetic agents appear to be safe in people with T2DM having COVID-19, no conclusive data are yet available to indicate a mortality benefit with any class of these drugs, in the absence of large randomized controlled trials.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-011857
2022-01-27
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/med/73/1/annurev-med-042220-011857.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-011857&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    World Health Organization 2021. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard Accessed Apr. 16, 2021. https://covid19.who.int/
  2. 2. 
    Yang JK, Feng Y, Yuan MY et al. 2006. Plasma glucose levels and diabetes are independent predictors for mortality and morbidity in patients with SARS. Diabet. Med. 23:6623–28
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Allard R, Leclerc P, Tremblay C, Tannenbaum TN. 2010. Diabetes and the severity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection. Diabetes Care 33:71491–93
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Alraddadi BM, Watson JT, Almarashi A et al. 2016. Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus illness in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 22:49–55
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. 
    Cariou B, Hadjadj S, Wargny M et al. 2020. Phenotypic characteristics and prognosis of inpatients with COVID-19 and diabetes: the CORONADO study. Diabetologia 63:1500–15
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Shi Q, Zhang X, Jiang F et al. 2020. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality of COVID-19 patients with diabetes in Wuhan, China: a two-center, retrospective study. Diabetes Care 43:1382–91
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Seiglie J, Platt J, Cromer SJ et al. 2020. Diabetes as a risk factor for poor early outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Diabetes Care 43:122938–44
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Agarwal S, Schechter C, Southern W et al. 2020. Preadmission diabetes-specific risk factors for mortality in hospitalized patients with diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019. Diabetes Care 43:2339–44
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Singh AK, Gilles C, Singh R et al. 2020. Prevalence of comorbidities and their association with mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 22:1915–24
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Williamson EJ, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran K et al. 2020. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature 584:7821430–36
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    Dennis JM, Mateen BA, Sonabend R et al. 2020. Type 2 diabetes and COVID-19-related mortality in the critical care setting: a national cohort study in England. Diabetes Care 44:150–57
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Clift AK, Coupland CAC, Keogh RH et al. 2020. Living risk prediction algorithm (QCOVID) for risk of hospital admission and mortality from coronavirus 19 in adults: national derivation and validation cohort study. BMJ 371:m3731
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Holman N, Knighton P, Kar P et al. 2020. Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England: a population-based cohort study. . Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 8:823–33
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Barron E, Bakhai C, Kar P et al. 2020. Associations of type 1 and type 2 diabetes with COVID-19-related mortality in England: a whole-population study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 8:813–22
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Singh AK, Singh R. 2020. At-admission hyperglycemia is consistently associated with poor prognosis and early intervention can improve outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 14:1641–44
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Singh AK, Singh R. 2020. Hyperglycemia without diabetes and new-onset diabetes are both associated with poorer outcomes in COVID-19. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 167:108382
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Potier L, Julla JB, Roussel R et al. 2020. COVID-19 symptoms masking inaugural ketoacidosis of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 47:1101162
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Kamrath C, Monkemoller K, Biester T et al. 2020. Ketoacidosis in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. JAMA 324:801–4
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Tittel SR, Rosenbauer J, Kamrath C et al. 2020. Did the COVID-19 lockdown affect the incidence of pediatric type 1 diabetes in Germany?. Diabetes Care 43:e172–73
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    Unsworth R, Wallace S, Oliver NS et al. 2020. New-onset type 1 diabetes in children during COVID-19: multicenter regional findings in the U.K. Diabetes Care 43:e170–71
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Ceriello A, Nigris VD, Prattichizzo F. 2020. Why is hyperglycaemia worsening COVID-19 and its prognosis?. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 22:1951–52
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    Apicella M, Campopiano MC, Mantuano M et al. 2020. COVID-19 in people with diabetes: understanding the reasons for worse outcomes. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 8:9782–92
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Singh AK, Singh R, Saboo B, Misra A. 2020. Non-insulin anti-diabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19: a critical appraisal of literature. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 15:1159–67
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Huang C, Wang Y, Li X et al. 2020. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 395:10223497–506
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Singh AK, Gupta R, Ghosh A, Misra A. 2020. Diabetes in COVID-19: prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 14:4303–10
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Epidemiol. Work. Group NCIP Epidemic Response 2020. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Chin. J. Epidemiol. 41:2145–51
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    CDC COVID-19 Response Team 2020. Preliminary estimates of the prevalence of selected underlying health conditions among patients with coronavirus disease 2019—United States, February 12–March 28, 2020. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 13:382–86
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A et al. 2020. Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy region, Italy. JAMA 323:161574–81
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA et al. 2020. Features of 20133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ 369:m1985
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Prieto-Alhambra D, Ballo E, Coma E et al. 2020. Hospitalization and 30-day fatality in 121,263 COVID-19 outpatient cases. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.04.20090050
    [Crossref]
  31. 31. 
    Bello-Chavolla OY, Bahena-Lopez JP, Antonio-Villa NE et al. 2020. Predicting mortality due to SARS-CoV-2: a mechanistic score relating obesity and diabetes to COVID-19 outcomes in Mexico. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 105:8dgaa346
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Almazeedi S, Al-Youha S, Jamal MH et al. 2020. Characteristics, risk factors and outcomes among the first consecutive 1,096 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Kuwait. Lancet EClinicalMedicine 24:100448
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Bhandari S, Singh A, Sharma R. 2020. Characteristics, treatment outcomes and role of hydroxychloroquine among 522 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Jaipur City: an epidemio-clinical study. J. Assoc. Phys. India 68:613–19
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Li B, Yang J, Zhao F et al. 2020. Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular metabolic diseases on COVID-19 in China. Clin. Res. Cardiol. 109:5531–38
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Yang J, Zheng Y, Gou X et al. 2020. Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 94:91–95
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Akbari A. 2020. Prevalence of underlying diseases in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch. Acad. Emerg. Med. 8:1e35
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. 
    Hu Y, Sun J, Dai Z et al. 2020. Prevalence and severity of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Clin. Virol. 127:104371
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Wang L, Gao P, Zhang M, Huang Z, Zhang D et al. 2017. Prevalence and ethnic pattern of diabetes and prediabetes in China in 2013. JAMA 317:2515–23
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Mithal A, Jevalikar G, Sharma R et al. 2020. High prevalence of diabetes and other comorbidities in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Delhi, India, and their association with outcomes. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 15:169–75
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Anjana RM, Deepa M, Pradeepa R et al. 2017. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 5:8585e96
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M et al. 2020. Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA 323:2052–59
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    Hartmann-Boyce J, Morris E, Goyder C et al. 2020. Diabetes and risks from COVID-19. The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Accessed Apr. 16, 2021. https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/diabetes-and-risks-from-covid-19/
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    Chen YM, Gong X, Wang L, Guo J 2020. Effects of hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease on COVID-19 diseases severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.25.20043133
    [Crossref]
  44. 44. 
    Roncon L, Zuin M, Rigatelli G, Zuliani G. 2020. Diabetic patients with COVID-19 infection are at higher risk of ICU admission and poor short-term outcome. J. Clin. Virol. 127:104354
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Wang B, Li R, Lu Z, Huang Y. 2020. Does comorbidity increase the risk of patients with COVID-19: evidence from meta-analysis. Aging 12:6049–57
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Kumar A, Arora A, Sharma O et al. 2020. Is diabetes mellitus associated with mortality and severity of COVID-19? A meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 14:4535–45
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Huang I, Lim MA, Pranata R et al. 2020. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia—a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 14:4395–403
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Bode B, Garrett V, Messler J et al. 2020. Glycemic characteristics and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the United States. J. Diabetes Sci. Technol. 14:4813–21
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Guo W, Li M, Dong Y et al. 2020. Diabetes is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 36:7e3319
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Deleted in proof
  51. 51. 
    Zhu L, She AG, Cheng X et al. 2020. Association of blood glucose control and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and preexisting type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab 31:1068–77
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    Vangoitsenhoven R, Martens PJ, Nes FV et al. 2020. No evidence of increased hospitalization rate for COVID-19 in community-dwelling patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 43:e118–19
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Vamvini M, Lioutas VA, Middelbeek RJW. 2020. Characteristics and diabetes control in adults with type 1 diabetes admitted with COVID-19 infection. Diabetes Care 43:e120–22
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Wargny M, Gourdy P, Ludwing L et al. 2020. Type 1 diabetes in people hospitalized for COVID-19: new insights from the CORONADO study. Diabetes Care 43:e174–77
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55. 
    Wang S, Ma P, Zhang S et al. 2020. Fasting blood glucose at admission is an independent predictor for 28-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 without previous diagnosis of diabetes: a multi-centre retrospective study. Diabetologia 63:2102–11
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. 
    Li H, Tian S, Chen T et al. 2020. Newly diagnosed diabetes is associated with a higher risk of mortality than known diabetes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 22:101897–906
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    Fadini GP, Morieri ML, Boscari F et al. 2020. Newly-diagnosed diabetes and admission hyperglycemia predict COVID-19 severity by aggravating respiratory deterioration. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 168:108374
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    Zhang Y, Li H, Zhang J et al. 2020. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia with coronavirus disease 2019: a single-centre, retrospective, observational study in Wuhan. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 22:81443–54
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Sardu C, D'Onofrio N, Balestrieri ML et al. 2020. Hyperglycaemia on admission to hospital and COVID-19. Diabetologia 63:112486–87
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Coppelli A, Giannarelli R, Aragona M et al. 2020. Hyperglycemia at hospital admission is associated with severity of the prognosis in patients hospitalized for COVID-19: the Pisa COVID-19 study. Diabetes Care 43:102345–48
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Yang JK, Jin JM, Liu S et al. 2020. New onset COVID-19–related diabetes: an indicator of mortality. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.08.20058040
    [Crossref]
  62. 62. 
    Capes SE, Hunt D, Malmberg K, Gerstein HC. 2000. Stress hyperglycaemia and increased risk of death after myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes: a systematic overview. Lancet 355:9206773–78
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Rubino F, Amiel SA, Zimmet P et al. 2020. New-onset diabetes in Covid-19. N. Engl. J. Med. 383:8789–90
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Singh AK, Singh R. 2020. Is metformin ahead in the race as a repurposed host-directed therapy for patients with diabetes and COVID-19?. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract 165:108268
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Chen Y, Yang D, Cheng B et al. 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with diabetes and COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering medication. Diabetes Care 43:71399–407
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Kim MK, Jeon JH, Kim SW et al. 2020. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with moderate-to-severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection and diabetes in Daegu, South Korea. Diabetes Metab. J. 44:4602–13
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Philipose Z, Smati N, Wong CSJ et al. 2020. Obesity, old age, and frailty are the true risk factors for COVID-19 mortality and not chronic disease or ethnicity. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.12.20156257
    [Crossref]
  68. 68. 
    Izzi-Engbeaya C, Distaso W, Amin A et al. 2020. Severe COVID-19 and diabetes—a retrospective cohort study from three London teaching hospitals. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.07.20160275
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Lalau JD, Al-Salameh A, Hadjadj S et al. 2020. Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. Diabetes Metab 47:5101216
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70. 
    Gao Y, Liu T, Zhong W et al. 2020. Risk of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients with COVID-19: a preliminary retrospective report. Clin. Transl. Sci. 13:61055–59
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Luo P, Qiu L, Liu Y et al. 2020. Metformin treatment was associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients with diabetes in a retrospective analysis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103:169–72
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Abu-Jamous B, Anisimovich A, Baxter J et al. 2020. Associations of comorbidities and medications with COVID-19 outcome: a retrospective analysis of real-world evidence data. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.20.20174169
    [Crossref]
  73. 73. 
    Crouse AB, Grimes T, Li P et al. 2020. Metformin use is associated with reduced mortality in a diverse population with COVID-19 and diabetes. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.29.20164020
    [Crossref]
  74. 74. 
    Bramante CT, Ingraham NE, Murray TA et al. 2021. Metformin and risk of mortality in patients hospitalized with Covid-19: a retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet Healthy Longev 2:e34–e41
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Jiang N, Chen Z, Yin X et al. 2021. Association of metformin with mortality or ARDS in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 173:108619
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Cheng X, Liu YM, Li H et al. 2020. Metformin use is associated with increased incidence of acidosis but not mortality in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab 32:4537–47.e3
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    Khunti K, Knighton P, Zaccardi F et al. 2021. Prescription of glucose-lowering therapies and risk of COVID-19 mortality in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide observational study in England. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 9:5293–303
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Scheen AJ. 2020. Metformin and COVID-19: from cellular mechanisms to reduced mortality. Diabetes Metab 46:423–26
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Kow CS, Hasan SS. 2020. Mortality risk with preadmission metformin use in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes: a meta-analysis. J. Med. Virol. 93:2695–97
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Hariyanto TI, Kurniawan A. 2020. Metformin use is associated with reduced mortality rate from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Obes. Med. 19:100290
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Lukito AA, Pranata R, Henrina J et al. 2020. The effect of metformin consumption on mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 14:62177–83
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    Vankadari N, Wilce JA. 2020. Emerging Wuhan (COVID-19) coronavirus: glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26. Emerg. Microb. Infect. 9:1601e4
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    Li Y, Zhang Z, Yang L et al. 2020. The MERS-CoV receptor DPP4 as a candidate binding target of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. . iScience 23:6101160
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Singh AK, Singh R. 2020. DPP-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes and COVID-19: from a potential repurposed agent to a useful treatment option. J. Diabetol. 11:131–36
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Drucker DJ. 2020. Coronavirus infections and type 2 diabetes—shared pathways with therapeutic implications. Endocr. Rev. 41:3bnna011
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Wargny M, Potier L, Gourdy P et al. 2021. Predictors of hospital discharge and mortality in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: updated results from the nationwide CORONADO study. . Diabetologia 64:4778–94
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Fadini GP, Morieri ML, Longato E et al. 2020. Exposure to DPP-4 inhibitors and COVID-19 among people with type 2 diabetes. A case-control study. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 22:101946–50
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    Strollo R, Maddaloni E, Dauriz M et al. 2021. Use of DPP4 inhibitors in Italy does not correlate with diabetes prevalence among COVID-19 deaths. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 171:108444
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Dalan R, Ang LW, Tan WY et al. 2021. The association of hypertension and diabetes pharmacotherapy with COVID-19 severity and immune signatures: an observational study. Eur. Heart J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacother. 7:3e48–e51
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Montastruc F, Romano C, Montastruc J-Louis et al. 2020. Pharmacological characteristics of patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 admitted to intensive care unit in South of France. Therapies 75:4381–84
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Rhee SY, Lee J, Nam H et al. 2020. Effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor and RAS blockade on clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes and COVID-19. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.20.20108555
    [Crossref]
  92. 92. 
    Mirani M, Favacchio G, Carrone F et al. 2020. Impact of comorbidities and glycemia at admission and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes with COVID-19: a case series from an academic hospital in Lombardy, Italy. Diabetes Care 43:3042–49
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Solerte SB, D'Addio F, Trevisan R et al. 2020. Sitagliptin treatment at the time of hospitalization was associated with reduced mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19: a multicenter, case-control, retrospective, observational study. Diabetes Care 43:2999–3006
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Bonora BM, Avogaro A, Fadini GP. 2021. Disentangling conflicting evidence on DPP-4 inhibitors and outcomes of COVID-19: narrative review and meta-analysis. J. Endocrinol. Investig 44:7137986
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Rakhmat II, Kusmala YY, Handayani DR et al. 2021. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)—a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 15:777–82
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Hariyanto TI, Kurniawan A. 2021. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor and outcome from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in diabetic patients: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. J. Diabetes Metab. Disord. 20:11–8
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Zelniker TA, Wiviott SD, Raz I et al. 2019. SGLT2 inhibitors for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials. Lancet 393:1016631–39
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. 
    AstraZeneca 2021. Update on the DARE-19 Phase III trial for Farxiga in COVID-19 Press release, Apr.12 AstraZeneca Cambridge, UK: https://www.astrazeneca.com/media-centre/press-releases/2021/update-on-farxiga-covid-19-dare-19-phase-iii-trial.html
  99. 99. 
    Nauck MA, Meier JJ. 2020. Reduced COVID-19 mortality with sitagliptin treatment? Weighing the dissemination of potentially lifesaving findings against the assurance of high scientific standards. Diabetes Care 43:2906–9
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-011857
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-011857
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error