1932

Abstract

We review current data on clinically suspected [European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2013 criteria] and biopsy-proven [ESC and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] myocarditis that is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ESC/WHO etiological diagnosis of viral myocarditis is based on histological and immunohistological evidence of nonischemic myocyte necrosis and monolymphocytic infiltration, i.e., myocarditis, plus the identification of a specific cardiotropic virus by molecular techniques, in particular polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/in-situ hybridization, on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)/autopsy tissue. There is not yet definitive EMB/autopsy proof that SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cardiomyocyte damage in association with histological myocarditis. Clinical epidemiology data suggest that myocarditis is uncommon for both SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative PCR cases. We hypothesize that the rare virus-negative biopsy-proven cases may represent new-onset immune-mediated or latent pre-existing autoimmune forms,triggered or fostered by the hyperinflammatory state of severe COVID-19. We recommend the application of the ESC/WHO definitions and diagnostic criteria in future reports to avoid low-quality scientific information leading to an inaccurate estimate of myocarditis incidence based on misdiagnosis.

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2022-01-27
2024-04-25
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