Both and asymptomatically colonize a significant percentage of humans, particularly during the first year of life. The epidemiology of both has been and continues to be quite dynamic; presently, we are in the midst of epidemics of infections by and . These ancient microbes are now armed with more potent virulence factors, which have extended their reach from the hospital into community settings, and from the elderly and debilitated hosts into the younger and otherwise healthy population. This review presents some emerging concepts that will likely shape efforts to develop active and passive immunization interventions in response to the reemergence of these bacterial pathogens.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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