1932

Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an infiltrative and restrictive cardiomyopathy that leads to heart failure, reduced quality of life, and death. The disease has two main subtypes, transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) and immunoglobulin light chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA), characterized by the nature of the infiltrating protein. ATTR-CA is further subdivided into wild-type (ATTRwt-CA) and variant (ATTRv-CA) based on the presence or absence of a mutation in the transthyretin gene. CA is significantly underdiagnosed and increasingly recognized as a cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Advances in diagnosis that employ nuclear scintigraphy to diagnose ATTR-CA without a biopsy and the emergence of effective treatments, including transthyretin stabilizers and silencers, have changed the landscape of this field and render early and accurate diagnosis critical. This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and management of CA with an emphasis on the significance of recent developments and suggested future directions.

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2020-01-27
2024-04-13
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