A major dilemma in the selection of treatment for men with prostate cancer is the difficulty in accurately characterizing the risk posed by the cancer. This uncertainty has led physicians to recommend aggressive therapy for most men diagnosed with prostate cancer and has led to concerns about the benefits of screening and the adverse consequences of excessive treatment. Genomic analyses of prostate cancer reveal distinct patterns of alterations in the genomic landscape of the disease that show promise for improved prediction of prognosis and better medical decision making. Several molecular profiles are now commercially available and are being used to inform medical decisions. This article describes the clinical tests available for distinguishing aggressive from nonaggressive prostate cancer, reviews the new genomic tests, and discusses their advantages and limitations and the evidence for their utility in various clinical settings.


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