infection (CDI) is a serious complication of hospitalization and antibiotic use with a high mortality and very high costs. Despite appropriate treatment, a subset of patients develop chronic recurrent CDI. Some other patients develop severe and life-threatening colitis. The risk factors, pathogenesis, and treatment of recurrent CDI and severe CDI are discussed in this review. In particular, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment strategy is outlined and a treatment algorithm incorporating FMT is described.


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