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Abstract

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a transmembrane protein is overexpressed by prostate cancer (PC) cells and is accessible for binding antibodies or low-molecular-weight radioligands due to its extracellular portion. Successful targeting of PSMA began with the development of humanized J591 antibody. Due to their faster clearance compared to antibodies, small-molecule radioligands for targeted imaging and therapy of PC have been favored in recent development efforts. PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has higher diagnostic performance than conventional imaging for initial staging of high-risk PC and biochemical recurrence detection/localization. However, it remains to be demonstrated how to integrate PSMA PET imaging for therapy response assessment and as an outcome endpoint measure in clinical trials. With the recent approval of 177Lu-PSMA-617 by the US Food and Drug Administration for metastatic castration-resistant PC progressing after chemotherapy, the high value of PSMA-targeted therapy was confirmed. Compared to standard of care, PSMA-based radioligand therapy led to a better outcome and a higher quality of life. This review, focusing on the advanced PC setting, provides an overview of different approved and nonapproved PSMA-targeted imaging and therapeutic modalities and discusses the future of PSMA-targeted theranostics, also with an outlook on non-radiopharmaceutical-based PSMA-targeted therapies.

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2024-01-29
2024-06-21
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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-081522-031439
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