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Abstract

LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) form one of the largest families of bacterial regulators. They are widely distributed and contribute to all aspects of metabolism and physiology. Most are homotetramers, with each subunit composed of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain followed by a long helix connecting to an effector-binding domain. LTTRs typically bind DNA in the presence or absence of a small-molecule ligand (effector). In response to cellular signals, conformational changes alter DNA interactions, contact with RNA polymerase, and sometimes contact with other proteins. Many are dual-function repressor–activators, although different modes of regulation may occur at multiple promoters. This review presents an update on the molecular basis of regulation, the complexity of regulatory schemes, and applications in biotechnology and medicine. The abundance of LTTRs reflects their versatility and importance. While a single regulatory model cannot describe all family members, a comparison of similarities and differences provides a framework for future study.

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2023-09-15
2024-06-23
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