Flagellar motility of and influences host colonization by promoting migration through viscous milieus such as gastrointestinal mucus. This review explores mechanisms and employ to control flagellar biosynthesis and chemotactic responses. These microbes tightly control the activities of σ54 and σ28 to mediate ordered flagellar gene expression. In addition to phase-variable and posttranslational mechanisms, flagellar biosynthesis is regulated spatially and numerically so that only a certain number of organelles are placed at polar sites. To mediate chemotaxis, and combine basic chemotaxis signal transduction components with several accessory proteins. is unusual in that it lacks a methylation-based adaptation system and produces multiple CheV coupling proteins. Chemoreceptors in these bacteria contain nonconserved ligand binding domains, with several chemoreceptors matched to environmental signals. Together, these mechanisms allow for swimming motility that is essential for colonization.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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