Elongation factor P (EF-P) binds to ribosomes requiring assistance with the formation of oligo-prolines. In order for EF-P to associate with paused ribosomes, certain tRNAs with specific -arm residues must be present in the peptidyl site, e.g., tRNAPro. Once EF-P is accommodated into the ribosome and bound to Pro-tRNAPro, productive synthesis of the peptide bond occurs. The underlying mechanism by which EF-P facilitates this reaction seems to have entropic origins. Maximal activity of EF-P requires a posttranslational modification in , , and . Each of these modifications is distinct and ligated onto its respective EF-P through entirely convergent means. Here we review the facets of translation elongation that are controlled by EF-P, with a particular focus on the purpose behind the many different modifications of EF-P.


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