1932

Abstract

Reactor neutrinos have been an important tool for both discovery and precision measurement in the history of neutrino studies. Since the first generation of reactor neutrino experiments in the 1950s, the detector technology has advanced greatly. New ideas, new knowledge, and modern software have also enhanced the power of the experiments. The current reactor neutrino experiments, Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO, have led neutrino physics into the precision era. In this article, we review these developments and advances, address the key issues in designing a state-of-the-art reactor neutrino experiment, and explain how the challenging requirements of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with the next-generation experiment JUNO could be realized in the near future.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101916-123318
2017-10-12
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nucl/67/1/annurev-nucl-101916-123318.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101916-123318&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Cowan C. 1.  et al. Science 124:103 1956. [Google Scholar]
  2. Boehm F. 2.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:3764 2000. [Google Scholar]
  3. Apollonio M. 3.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 466:415 1999. [Google Scholar]
  4. Eguchi K. 4.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90:021802 2003. [Google Scholar]
  5. An FP. 5.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:171803 2012. [Google Scholar]
  6. Abe Y. 6.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:131801 2012. [Google Scholar]
  7. Ahn JK. 7.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:191802 2012. [Google Scholar]
  8. An F. 8.  et al. J. Phys. G 43030401 2016. [Google Scholar]
  9. Wong HT. 9.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 75:012001 2007. [Google Scholar]
  10. Beda AG. 10.  et al. Phys. Part. Nucl. Lett. 10:139 2013. [Google Scholar]
  11. Daraktchieva Z. 11.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 615:153 2005. [Google Scholar]
  12. Reines F, Cowan CL. 12.  Phys. Rev. 90:492 1953. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cowan CL. 13.  et al. Phys. Rev. 90:493 1953. [Google Scholar]
  14. Reines F, Cowan CL. 14.  Phys. Rev. 92:830 1953. [Google Scholar]
  15. Pontecorvo B.15.  Sov. Phys. JETP 6:429 1957. [Google Scholar]
  16. Pontecorvo B.16.  Sov. Phys. JETP 7:172 1958. [Google Scholar]
  17. Maki Z, Nakagawa M, Sakata S. 17.  Prog. Theor. Phys. 28:870 1962. [Google Scholar]
  18. Reines F, Sobel HW, Pasierb E. 18.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 45:1307 1980. [Google Scholar]
  19. Pasierb E. 19.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43:96 1979. [Google Scholar]
  20. Boehm FH. 20.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 97:310 1980. [Google Scholar]
  21. Kwon H. 21.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 24:1097 1981. [Google Scholar]
  22. Davis BR, Vogel P, Mann FM, Schenter RE. 22.  Phys. Rev. C 19:2259 1979. [Google Scholar]
  23. Vogel P, Schenter GK, Mann FM, Schenter RE. 23.  Phys. Rev. C 24:1543 1981. [Google Scholar]
  24. Cavaignac JF. 24.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 148:387 1984. [Google Scholar]
  25. Zacek G. 25.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 34:2621 1986. [Google Scholar]
  26. Declais Y. 26.  et al. Nucl. Phys. B 434:503 1995. [Google Scholar]
  27. Fukuda Y. 27.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81:1562 1998. [Google Scholar]
  28. Boehm F. 28.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 62:072002 2000. [Google Scholar]
  29. Boehm F. 29.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 64:112001 2001. [Google Scholar]
  30. Apollonio M. 30.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 27:331 2003. [Google Scholar]
  31. Wang YF, Miller L, Gratta G. 31.  Phys. Rev. D 62:013012 2000. [Google Scholar]
  32. Bahcall JN.32.  Phys. Rev. B 135:137 1964. [Google Scholar]
  33. Davis R, Harmer DS, Hoffman KC. 33.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 20:1205 1968. [Google Scholar]
  34. Hampel W. 34.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 447:127 1999. [Google Scholar]
  35. Abdurashitov JN. 35.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83:4686 1999. [Google Scholar]
  36. Hirata KS. 36.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 63:16 1989. [Google Scholar]
  37. Fukuda Y. 37.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81:1158 1998. [Google Scholar]
  38. Berger BE. 38.  et al. J. Instrum. 4:P04017 2009. [Google Scholar]
  39. Abe S. 39.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100:221803 2008. [Google Scholar]
  40. Araki T. 40.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94:081801 2005. [Google Scholar]
  41. Ahn MH. 41.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90:041801 2003. [Google Scholar]
  42. Mikaelyan LA, Sinev VV. 42.  Phys. At. Nucl. 63:1002 2000. [Google Scholar]
  43. Anjos JC. 43.  et al. Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 155:231 2006. [Google Scholar]
  44. Bolton T.44.  Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 149:166 2005. [Google Scholar]
  45. Guo X. 45.  et al. arXivhep–ex/0701029 2007.
  46. Anderson K. 46.  et al. arXivhep–ex/0402041 2004.
  47. Ardellier F. 47.  et al. arXivhep–ex/0606025 2006.
  48. Martemyanov V. 48.  et al. Phys. At. Nucl. 66:1934 2003. [Google Scholar]
  49. Aoki M. 49.  et al. arXivhep–ex/0607013 2006.
  50. Ahn JK. 50.  et al. arXiv1003.1391 [hep-ex] 2010.
  51. Fogli GL. 51.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101:141801 2008. [Google Scholar]
  52. Balantekin AB, Yilmaz D. 52.  J. Phys. G 35:075007 2008. [Google Scholar]
  53. Schwetz T, Tortola MA, Valle JWF. 53.  New J. Phys. 10:113011 2008. [Google Scholar]
  54. Abe K. 54.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107:041801 2011. [Google Scholar]
  55. Adamson P. 55.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107:181802 2011. [Google Scholar]
  56. An FP. 56.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 95:072006 2017. [Google Scholar]
  57. Cao J, Luk KB. 57.  Nucl. Phys. B 908:62 2016. [Google Scholar]
  58. An FP. 58.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:141802 2014. [Google Scholar]
  59. An FP. 59.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117:151802 2016. [Google Scholar]
  60. Adamson P. 60.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117:15 1801. 2016. Landinez Borda EJ, Cai W, de Konig M. Erratum Phys. Rev. Lett. 117:209901 2016. [Google Scholar]
  61. An FP. 61.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116:061801 2016. [Google Scholar]
  62. An FP. 62.  et al. Chin. Phys. C 2017:41 2016. [Google Scholar]
  63. An FP. 63.  et al. Chin. Phys. C 37:011001 2013. [Google Scholar]
  64. An FP. 64.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112:061801 2014. [Google Scholar]
  65. An FP. 65.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115:111802 2015. [Google Scholar]
  66. Abe Y. 66.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 735:51 2014. [Google Scholar]
  67. Abe Y. 67.  et al. J. High Energy Phys. 10:086 2014. Abe Y et al. Erratum J. High Energy Phys. 2:74 2015. [Google Scholar]
  68. Abe Y. 68.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 86:052008 2012. [Google Scholar]
  69. Choi JH. 69.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116:211801 2016. [Google Scholar]
  70. Petcov ST, Piai M. 70.  Phys. Lett. B 533:94 2002. [Google Scholar]
  71. Choubey S, Petcov ST, Piai M. 71.  Phys. Rev. D 68:113006 2003. [Google Scholar]
  72. Learned J, Dye ST, Pakvasa S, Svoboda RC. 72.  Phys. Rev. D 78:071302 2008. [Google Scholar]
  73. Zhan L, Wang Y, Cao J, Wen L. 73.  Phys. Rev. D 78:111103 2008. [Google Scholar]
  74. Zhan L, Wang Y, Cao J, Wen L. 74.  Phys. Rev. D 79:073007 2009. [Google Scholar]
  75. Li Y, Cao J, Wang Y, Zhan L. 75.  Phys. Rev. D 88:013008 2013. [Google Scholar]
  76. Djurcic Z. 76.  et al. arXiv1508.07166 [physics.ins-det] 2015.
  77. Li YF, Wang Y, Xing Z. 77.  Chin. Phys. C 40:091001 2016. [Google Scholar]
  78. Von Feilitzsch F, Hahn AA, Schreckenbach K. 78.  Phys. Lett. B 118:162 1982. [Google Scholar]
  79. Schreckenbach K, Colvin G, Gelletly W, Von Feilitzsch F. 79.  Phys. Lett. B 160:325 1985. [Google Scholar]
  80. Hahn AA. 80.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 218:365 1989. [Google Scholar]
  81. Huber P.81.  Phys. Rev. C 84:024617 2011. Huber P. Erratum Phys. Rev. C 85:029901 2012. [Google Scholar]
  82. Mueller TA. 82.  et al. Phys. Rev. C 83:054615 2011. [Google Scholar]
  83. Hayes AC, Vogel P. 83.  Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 66:219 2016. [Google Scholar]
  84. Kopeikin V, Mikaelyan L, Sinev V. 84.  Phys. At. Nucl. 67:1963 2004. [Google Scholar]
  85. Fallot M. 85.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109:202504 2012. [Google Scholar]
  86. Hayes AC. 86.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112:202501 2014. [Google Scholar]
  87. Dwyer DA, Langford TJ. 87.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 114:012502 2015. [Google Scholar]
  88. Vogel P, Wen L, Zhang C. 88.  Nat. Commun. 6:6935 2015. [Google Scholar]
  89. Mention G. 89.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 83:073006 2011. [Google Scholar]
  90. Haag N. 90.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112:122501 2014. [Google Scholar]
  91. Ma XB. 91.  et al. Mod. Phys. Lett. A 31:1650120 2016. [Google Scholar]
  92. Apollonio M. 92.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 420:397 1998. [Google Scholar]
  93. Beriguete W. 93.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 763:82 2014. [Google Scholar]
  94. Aberle C. 94.  et al. J. Instrum. 7:P06008 2012. [Google Scholar]
  95. Piepke AG, Moser SW, Novikov VM. 95.  Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 432:392 1999. [Google Scholar]
  96. Lightfoot PK. 96.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 522:439 2004. [Google Scholar]
  97. Danilov NA. 97.  et al. Radiochemistry 45:140 2003. [Google Scholar]
  98. Yeh M, Garnov A, Hahn RL. 98.  Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 578:329 2007. [Google Scholar]
  99. Ding Y. 99.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 584:238 2008. [Google Scholar]
  100. Yeh M, Cumming JB, Hans S, Hahn RL. 100.  Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 618:124 2010. [Google Scholar]
  101. An FP. 101.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 685:78 2012. [Google Scholar]
  102. Wen LJ. 102.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 629:296 2011. [Google Scholar]
  103. An FP. 103.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 811:133 2016. [Google Scholar]
  104. Birks JB.104.  Proc. R. Phys. Soc. A 64:874 1951. [Google Scholar]
  105. Zhang FH. 105.  et al. Chin. Phys. C 39:016003 2015. [Google Scholar]
  106. Wang YF. 106.  et al. Phys. Rev. 64:013012 2001. [Google Scholar]
  107. Fasso A, Ferrari A, Sala PR, Ranft J. 107.  Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments (SARE3) H Hirayama 32 Tsukuba, Jpn: KEK 1997. [Google Scholar]
  108. Ferrari A, Sala PR, Fasso A, Ranft J. 108.  FLUKA: a multi-particle transport code CERN-2005-10, INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773 2005. [Google Scholar]
  109. Marino MG. 109.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582:611 2007. [Google Scholar]
  110. Hagner T. 110.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 14:33 2000. [Google Scholar]
  111. Abe S. 111.  et al. Phys. Rev. C 81:025807 2010. [Google Scholar]
  112. Wen LJ. 112.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 564:471 2006. [Google Scholar]
  113. Gu WQ. 113.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 833:27 2016. [Google Scholar]
  114. Seo H. 114.  et al. arXiv1610.04326 [hep-ex] 2016.
  115. Heng Y.115.  Design, status and plans of JUNO & RENO-50 as a comprehensive neutrino program.Presented at Int Conf. High Energy Phys. (ICHEP), 38th. Chicago: 2016. [Google Scholar]
  116. Liu J. 116.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 750:19 2014. [Google Scholar]
  117. Liu J. 117.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 797:260 2015. [Google Scholar]
  118. Huang HX. 118.  et al. J. Instrum. 8:P09013 2013. [Google Scholar]
  119. An FP. 119.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 773:8 2015. [Google Scholar]
  120. Wang Y. 120.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 695:113 2012. [Google Scholar]
  121. Qian S.121.  The 20 inch MCP-PMT R&D in China Presented at Int. Worksh. Next Gener. Nucleon Decay Neutrino Detect. (NNN15), Oct. 28–31 Stony Brook Univ. Stony Brook, NY: 2015. [Google Scholar]
  122. Benziger J. 122.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 587:277 2008. [Google Scholar]
  123. Zhou L.123.  The liquid scintillator of JUNO Presented at XXVII Int. Conf. Neutrino Phys. Astrophys.July 4–9 London: 2016. [Google Scholar]
  124. Zhou X. 124.  et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86:073310 2015. [Google Scholar]
  125. Ding XF. 125.  et al. Chin. Phys. C 39:126001 2015. [Google Scholar]
  126. Schechter J, Valle JWF. 126.  Phys. Rev. D 25:2951 1982. [Google Scholar]
  127. Duerr M, Lindner M, Zuber K. 127.  Phys. Rev. D 84:093004 2011. [Google Scholar]
  128. Liu JH, Zhang J, Zhou S. 128.  Phys. Lett. B 760:571 2016. [Google Scholar]
  129. Ge SF, Rodejohann W. 129.  Phys. Rev. D 92:093006 2015. [Google Scholar]
  130. Agostini M.130.  First results from GERDA Phase II Presented at XXVII Int. Conf. Neutrino Phys. Astrophys.July 4–9 London: 2016. [Google Scholar]
  131. Albert JB. 131.  et al. Nature 510:229 2014. [Google Scholar]
  132. Gando A. 132.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117:082503 2016. Gando A et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117:109903 2016. [Google Scholar]
  133. Zhao J, Wen LJ, Wang YF, Cao J. 133.  Chin. Phys. C 41:53001 2017. [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101916-123318
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101916-123318
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error